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Nutrition. Sara R. Zwart, Ph.D. Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory Johnson Space Center - NASA. Monica V. Trevathan Education Specialist Human Health and Performance Johnson Space Center - NASA. June 23, 2005. Learning Objectives.

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Nutrition

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Nutrition


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Sara R. Zwart, Ph.D.

Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory

Johnson Space Center - NASA

Monica V. Trevathan

Education Specialist

Human Health and Performance

Johnson Space Center - NASA

June 23, 2005


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Learning Objectives

Participants will expand their science content knowledge in the area of Nutrition by:

  • Describing the importance of proper nutrition for our bodies on Earth and for human space exploration.

  • Identifying human body systems that are affected by inadequate nutrition (on Earth and in space).

  • Explaining some challenges in nutrition and food for human exploration and long duration space flight.


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Adaptation to Weightlessness

  • Muscle

  • Psychological/ Behavioral/ Performance

  • Bone

  • Fluid shifts, hematological

  • Taste & odor

  • Cardiovascular

  • Neurosensory

  • Gastrointestinal

  • Sleep &circadian rhythm

  • Environmental


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What is the Function of Nutrition?

  • Psychosocial aspects

  • Meet energy/nutrient requirements

  • Countermeasure


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Classroom Project Idea

  • Go to www.mypyramid.gov

  • My Pyramid Tracker can track food intake for 24 hours and give a report


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Energy Intake


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In general, most astronauts eat less than their recommended intake. Does this necessarily mean they lose weight?

Energy IntakePOLL QUESTION


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Body Weight


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SLAMMD


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Vitamin D


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Vitamin D


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Vitamin D

  • Stimulates calcium absorption in the intestine

  • Deficiency can lead to:

    • Rickets

    • Osteomalacia


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Where is vitamin D synthesized in the body?


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POLL QUESTION

Which of the following is NOT a source of Vitamin D?


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Nutrients Critical for Bone Health

  • Calcium

  • Vitamin D

  • Vitamin K

  • Phosphorus

  • Magnesium


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Bone

Bone breakdown

Bone formation


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Bone Loss

  • Bone Loss

  • Fracture Risk

  • Stone Risk

Adapted from Heaney et al, 2000


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Potential Countermeasures

  • Nutrition

  • Exercise

  • Pharmacology


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Biochemical Markers of Bone Breakdown

  • N-telopeptide

  • Helical peptide


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Sodium

NTX (nmol/d)

Level of dietary sodium at each stage of the study

Experiment days


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European Mir Mission (Days)


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Omega-3 Fatty Acids

  • Beneficial effects on cholesterol, lipid metabolism, and cardiovascular health

  • Inhibit muscle loss in subjects with hyper-catabolic diseases

  • Protective effects on bone health


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Omega-3 Fatty Acids

  • Clinical trial with cancer cachexia patients

(Wigmore et al. 1996)


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Animal protein/Potassium


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Chicken Bone in Acid

  • In the classroom, use the “famous” chicken bone in acid lab experiment to demonstrate acid effects on bones

  • See: http://haco.jsc.nasa.gov/pdf/pH Experiment.pdf

  • ….plus, ideas for more on nutrition and bones!


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Next Stop: Mars!!

  • Nutrition is critical due to length of missions

  • Critical issues:

    • Are vitamins stable after exposure to deep-space radiation?

    • Are nutrients stable for long shelf life (up to 5 years)?


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Food System Issues

  • Nutrient content

  • Palatability

  • Shelf-life

  • Preparation

  • Storage

  • Trash


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How will Extreme Conditions of Space Affect Food Supply?

  • Closed food system

  • Radiation

  • Long-term storage

  • Depletion of a single nutrient could be deadly after 3 years


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For Example…

Vitamin B1 (thiamine)

  • Easily destroyed by heat and light

  • Deficiency

    • beriberi

    • develops within 2-3 months

    • neurological and cardiovascular effects


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Another Example

Vitamin C

  • Deficiency

    • Scurvy

    • Bleeding around hair follicles, gums and underneath fingernails

  • Effects of radiation and long-duration storage are unknown for space flight


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    Nutrition Research

    On Earth and in space:

    • Nutrition is more than just eating food

      • Food choices are important

    • Nutrition affects all body systems

    • Countermeasures for conditions such as osteoporosis


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    Related NASA Education Material

    • National Space and Biomedical Research Institute

    • Activities Guides for Teachers

    • 5-8 grade

    http://www.nsbri.org/Education/index.html


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    Related NASA Education Material

    • NASA CONNECT™

    • Math & Science integration

    • “Better Health from Space to Earth”

    • Grades 5-8

    http://connect.larc.nasa.gov


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    Sara R. Zwart, Ph.D.

    Nutritional Biochemistry Laboratory

    Johnson Space Center - NASA

    Monica V. Trevathan

    Education Specialist

    Human Health and Performance

    Johnson Space Center - NASA


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