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Recovery and Restoration of Livelihoods of involuntarily displaced communities: Perspectives from Ujjani and Sardar Sarovar Projects. Madar Samad IWMI, Hyderabad. Ramasamy Iyer : “ Considerable hardships and injustice ” to many displaced (The Hindu, April 13, 2006)

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Recovery and Restoration of Livelihoods of involuntarily displaced communities: Perspectives from Ujjani and Sardar Sarovar Projects

Madar Samad

IWMI, Hyderabad


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  • Ramasamy Iyer displaced communities: : “Considerable hardships and injustice” to many displaced(The Hindu, April 13, 2006)

  • Saifuddin Soz Committee Report:“due to defects in policy and prescribed procedures there are many failures in the rehabilitation effort, and is also not in accordance with the supreme court order” (The Hindu, 17 April 2006)


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  • In India alone some 25- 40 million people have reportedly been displaced in the last 5 decades

  • Statistics suggest under NRLP over half a million people will be displaced due to peninsular links alone


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Key Question is why is that although the adverse effects of population displacement are in general well documented and the existence of several guidelines on resettlement management, it continues to be a difficult problem?


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Hypothesis 1 population displacement are in general well documented and the existence of several guidelines on resettlement management, it continues to be a difficult problem?

Negative short term consequences of displacement are compensated by the longer term benefits generated from enhanced socio-economic opportunities created in the newly developed relocation site.

Hypothesis 2

With proper counter risk policy and approaches, short term adverse effects can be largely arrested, and some even fully prevented, while others considerably mitigated, and thus people’s livelihood are resorted much earlier.


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Method of study population displacement are in general well documented and the existence of several guidelines on resettlement management, it continues to be a difficult problem?

A comprehensive review of national policy and procedures for resettlement management in India.

The review will focuses on

  • expropriation procedures

  • compensation principles

  • relocation procedures and mechanisms for minimizing relocation stresses

  • livelihood issues in resettlement policy

  • Gender concerns and issues relating to rehabilitations of SC/ST.

  • others


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Study Methods: population displacement are in general well documented and the existence of several guidelines on resettlement management, it continues to be a difficult problem?

  • Case studies of selected resettlement sites in India:

  • Upper Bhima Irrigation Project (Ujjani Dam) Maharastra

    • Rehabilitation and Resettlement started around 1974.

    • Long term impact of involuntary displacement and resettlement

    • Field work to commence on 20 May

  • Narmada Project (Gujarat) – 2 locations

    • A community that has been displaced and resettled during the last 5 -10 year period

    • A community that has been resettled more 15-20 years ago


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Method of study contd: population displacement are in general well documented and the existence of several guidelines on resettlement management, it continues to be a difficult problem?

Case studies involved:

  • review of feasibility reports and project related documents,

  • Questionnaire surveys of sample displaced household

  • Review of past research findings relating to the selected case study sites.


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  • A analysis of 500 litigations filed before the Maharashtra courts

  • Analysis of petitions submitted by displaced persons to the Grievances Redressal Agency for SSP (there are some 5000 petitions are pending before the agency)

  • proceedings reports of various commissions and committees and other relevant bodies

  • Submissions and document published by NGOs and activists taking the case on behalf of the displaced people will be reviewed


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Effective rehabilitation and resettlement management courts : minimizing relocation stresses of oustees and improve, or at least restore, the their living standard to the level before displacement within the shortest possible time.


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Field Survey courts

Research Question:

How has the socio-economic status of dam oustees in Ujjani and SSP changed over time?

  • Are they better off than before displacement?

  • Worse off than before displacement?

  • No change?











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Occupational Changes three SSP states

SSP:

  • 33% - Household Head changed their primary occupation

  • 78% - reported as current employment is more remunerative

    Ujjani:

  • Substantial number change to non-remunerative employment.


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CONCLUSIONS three SSP states

  • Preliminary Results indicate that SSP (Gujarat) the oustees are not adversely affected to the extent claimed

  • Oustees do encounter initial relocation stress and there is a fall in standard of living

  • A majority of oustees were able restore their livelihoods to the original level in 4-6 years.

  • Data suggests that oustees in Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra are worse off than Gujarat.

  • Field work underway.


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