RtI as a Model for Reading Improvement: A Focus on Students Learning English. Rollanda O’Connor University of California at Riverside. A “Fact” that began a model:.
University of California at Riverside
Phonemic awareness is more strongly associated with reading achievement at the end of first grade than IQ, vocabulary, or SES of the family.
Becoming “phonemically aware” is most useful prior to Grade 2
Most students with LD in reading (RD) aren’t identified until after Grade 2
But PA “catches” 20-40% of a kindergarten population
30% of 4th grade native English speakers score < Basic
71% of 4th grade ELL score < Basic (NAEP, 2007)
24% of all students in CA are ELL
20-50% of students in Riverside County schools are ELL
September, January, May:
a m s t i f
(The meaningful parts of words)
Same 5 schools of waiting
Same reading curriculumGr 2 RtI vs. Historical Control