Introduction to qualitative research
Sponsored Links
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
1 / 34

Introduction to Qualitative Research PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 111 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Introduction to Qualitative Research. Aaron Louie, User Experience Architect. PURPOSE WHY QUALITATIVE RESEARCH? RESEARCH DESIGN VALIDITY & RELIABILITY WRITING INTERVIEW QUESTIONS ANALYZING DATA RESOURCES. PURPOSE WHY QUALITATIVE RESEARCH? RESEARCH DESIGN VALIDITY & RELIABILITY

Download Presentation

Introduction to Qualitative Research

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Introduction to Qualitative Research

Aaron Louie, User Experience Architect


  • PURPOSE

  • WHY QUALITATIVE RESEARCH?

  • RESEARCH DESIGN

  • VALIDITY & RELIABILITY

  • WRITING INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

  • ANALYZING DATA

  • RESOURCES


  • PURPOSE

  • WHY QUALITATIVE RESEARCH?

  • RESEARCH DESIGN

  • VALIDITY & RELIABILITY

  • WRITING INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

  • ANALYZING DATA

  • RESOURCES


What this presentation will do

  • Lay the basic groundwork for gaining skills in user research

  • Provide useful guidelines for writing interview questions

  • Point you to resources for deeper study in qualitative research methods


What it won’t do

  • Substitute for a college course on the subject

  • Make you an expert


  • PURPOSE

  • WHY QUALITATIVE RESEARCH?

  • RESEARCH DESIGN

  • VALIDITY & RELIABILITY

  • WRITING INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

  • ANALYZING DATA

  • RESOURCES


The purpose of qualitative research is…


…to make sense of reality…


…in a valid and reliable fashion.


Describing reality

  • Reality is complex.

  • All real problems are “wicked” problems.

  • Two ways to approach it:

    • Quantify it. Then construct mathematical models describing it.

    • Experience it qualitatively. Then make sense of it.


Controlled environment

Experimentation

Deductive

Numbers

Researcher is objective

Natural/complex environments

Interaction

Inductive

Words

Researcher is a participant

Quantitative vs. Qualitative


The Scientific Method

Hypothesize

Experiment

Analyze

Data

Refine

Hypothesis


Quantitative Research

Hypothesize

Experiment

Analyze

Data

Refine

Hypothesis

Predict outcome & design experiment to test outcome

Collect measurements in a controlled environment

Apply statistical calculations

Identify patterns, revise assumptions


Qualitative Research

Hypothesize

Experiment

Analyze

Data

Refine

Hypothesis

Identify assumptions & formulate research questions

Collect data via observation, interviews, surveys, etc.

Count, classify, & structure data

Identify themes, revise assumptions


  • PURPOSE

  • WHY QUALITATIVE RESEARCH?

  • RESEARCH DESIGN

  • VALIDITY & RELIABILITY

  • WRITING INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

  • ANALYZING DATA

  • RESOURCES


Research Design

  • Determine scope

    • What you’re researching

    • What you’re not

  • Identify assumptions

    • Models from literature

    • Researcher’s biases

  • Draft research questions

  • Choose your methods

    • Data collection methods

    • Analysis methods


Framing Research Questions

  • List what you expect to find out, based on the scope and your assumptions.

  • For each finding, write a question (or series of questions) that must be answered to support or invalidate the finding.

  • Determine dependencies (which questions must be answered first).


Qualitative Data Collection Methods

  • Surveys

    • Pros: quantifiable, lower chance of affecting subject

    • Cons: no interaction with subject, nuances of emotion or environment lost

  • Naturalistic observation

    • Pros: gain understanding of environment without interfering with subject

    • Cons: very little interaction with subject, no insight into subject’s mental processes

  • Contextual inquiry (shadowing, on-site interviews, think-aloud, etc.)

    • Pros: balanced level of interaction with subject, insight into subject’s thoughts in context of tasks and environment

    • Cons: researcher’s physical presence can affect subject’s behavior

  • Ethnography (embedded research)

    • Pros: maximum level of interaction with subject, researcher gains deep understanding by becoming a subject, subjects treat researcher as peer

    • Cons: time- and cost-prohibitive


Analysis Methods

  • Statistical Analysis

  • Content Analysis

  • Narrative Analysis

  • Strategic Analysis

  • Workflow Analysis

  • Task Analysis

  • Business Analysis

  • Cognitive Work Analysis

  • Systems Analysis

  • Grounded Theory

  • etc.


  • PURPOSE

  • WHY QUALITATIVE RESEARCH?

  • RESEARCH DESIGN

  • VALIDITY & RELIABILITY

  • WRITING INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

  • ANALYZING DATA

  • RESOURCES


Good research design

  • Maximize validity

    • Conclusions are true

  • Maximize reliability

    • Findings are repeatable

  • Relatively easy to do in quantitative research

  • Impossible to do in qualitative research


Threats to validity

  • Changes in environment

  • Changes in society

  • Effects of time

  • Changes in person

  • Bias in subject

  • Interaction between subjects

    (In other words, stuff you can’t control.)


Threats to validity(stuff you CAN control)

  • Bias in researcher

  • Interaction between researcher and subject


Validity vs. Understanding


Executive

Upper management

Supervisor

How does the subject view you?


  • PURPOSE

  • WHY QUALITATIVE RESEARCH?

  • RESEARCH DESIGN

  • VALIDITY & RELIABILITY

  • WRITING INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

  • ANALYZING DATA

  • RESOURCES


Composing an Interview Script

  • List what must be known in order to answer each research question

  • For each item in that list, write a question

  • Organize the questions into categories

  • Sort general  specific within each category


Phrasing Questions

  • Ask open questions for general questions

    • “what”, “why”, “when”, “how”, “who”

  • Ask closed questions for specific questions

    • “how often”, “how many”

  • Reserve yes/no questions for branching points in interview script

    (i.e., a line of questioning dependent on a previous answer)

    • “Have you ever done X? If so, how did you feel about…”


Refining Interview Questions

  • Remove biased or charged language

    • “What do you think about the problems with the intranet”

  • Avoid asking leading questions

    • “Wouldn’t it be better if you did it this way?”

  • Be aware of your own biases!

    • “How have consultants like Ascentium helped you get your job done better?”

  • Structure questions to facilitate data analysis


Conducting the Interview

  • Gain informed consent from the interviewee

  • Record audio/video whenever possible

  • Remain open-minded – don’t think too much

  • Listen, listen, listen

  • Avoid reacting too much (negatively or positively) to the interviewee’s responses

  • Take prodigious notes

  • Write up notes immediately after interview


  • PURPOSE

  • WHY QUALITATIVE RESEARCH?

  • RESEARCH DESIGN

  • VALIDITY & RELIABILITY

  • WRITING INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

  • ANALYZING DATA

  • RESOURCES


Analyzing The Data

  • Go through notes & transcript

    • Identify frequent keywords

    • Categorize responses

    • Look for patterns

  • Match keywords, categories, and patterns to models and assumptions


  • PURPOSE

  • WHY QUALITATIVE RESEARCH?

  • RESEARCH DESIGN

  • VALIDITY & RELIABILITY

  • WRITING INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

  • ANALYZING DATA

  • RESOURCES


Resources

  • Books

    • The Craft of Research by Wayne C. Booth, Joseph M. Williams, Gregory G. Colomb [link]

    • Qualitative Research Methods for the Social Sciences by Bruce L. Berg [link]

    • Cognitive Work Analysis: Toward Safe, Productive, and Healthy Computer-Based Work by Kim J. Vicente [link]

  • Web sites

    • Cognitive Work Analysis: Toward Safe, Productive, and Healthy Computer-Based Work by Kim J. Vicente [link]

    • Qualitative Research Consultants Association: FAQs about Qualitative Research [link]

    • Association for Information Systems: Qualitative Resarch in Information Systems [link]

    • UsabilityNet: Tools and methods [link]

    • UW Libraries: Lit Reviews, Research Methods… [link]

    • Virginia Tech: Annotated Bibliography on Qualitative Research Methodology [link]


  • Login