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Introduction. ANTHROPOLOGY : A DISCIPLINE OF INFINITE CURIOSITY ABOUT HUMAN BEINGS. THE DISCIPLINE. THE SCOPE OF ANTHROPOLOGY THE HOLISTIC APPROACH ANTHROPOLOGY & SCIENCE THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL CURIOSITY. A sample of Questions that Anthropology ponders:. Why can human beings throw baseballs?

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introduction

Introduction

ANTHROPOLOGY:A DISCIPLINE OF INFINITE CURIOSITY ABOUT HUMAN BEINGS

the discipline
THE DISCIPLINE
  • THE SCOPE OF ANTHROPOLOGY
  • THE HOLISTIC APPROACH
  • ANTHROPOLOGY & SCIENCE
  • THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL CURIOSITY
a sample of questions that anthropology ponders
A sample of Questions that Anthropology ponders:
  • Why can human beings throw baseballs?
  • Why do we stand up on two fragile limbs when so many other animals sensibly move about on all four?
  • Why are we relatively hairless (and, thus, get sunburn)?
  • Why do we speak, form societies, fight wars?
  • Why do we think about our own impending deaths?
  • How long have human beings been around?
  • When did people first start farming, or forming states?
first contact
“First Contact”
  • What types of questions would you ask?
  • How would you respond to these people?
  • What types of things would you look for while observing these people?
  • The anthropologist may also experience "culture shock”
    • a psychological reaction that ranges from mild to severe when we experience a different culture
specific fields of study
SPECIFIC FIELDS OF STUDY
  • PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY
    • ONE MAJOR FIELD
  • CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY
    • ARCHAEOLOGY
    • LINGUISTICS
    • ETHNOLOGY
physical anthropology
PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY

HUMAN PALEONTOLOGY or PALEOANTHROPOLOGY

HUMAN VARIATION

HUMAN GENETICS

POPULATION BIOLOGY

EPIDEMIOLOGY

cultural anthropology
CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY

ARCHAEOLOGY

PREHISTORY

HISTORICAL ARCHAEOLOGY

LINGUISTICS

HISTORICAL LINGUISTICS

STRUCTURAL LINGUISTICS

SOCIOLINGUISTICS

ETHNOLOGY

ETHNOGRAPHY

ethnology
ETHNOLOGY
  • ETHNOGRAPHER
  • ETHNOHISTORIAN
  • CROSS-CULTURAL RESEARCHER
methods
METHODS
  • WITHIN-CULTURE COMPARISONS
  • NONHISTORICAL CONTROLLED COMPARISON
  • CROSS-CULTURAL RESEARCH
  • HISTORICAL RESEARCH
applied anthropology
APPLIED ANTHROPOLOGY
  • ALL FOUR SUBDISCIPLINES REPRESENTED
    • Utilize anthropological knowledge to achieve practical goals
  • EXAMPLES
    • Museum work
    • Forensics
    • Bilingual education
    • Community development
the scientific method
THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD
  • provides orderly and supported explanations
  • a logical system used to evaluate data that are obtained by systematic observation
  • science theories are falsifiable
    • scientific explanations are testable, tentative, and subject to change
  • The scientific method rests on the faith that the universe possesses order and this order can be discerned and interpreted
the scientific method cont
THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD (cont.)
  • Two ways of generating testable propositions or what are called hypotheses:
    • inductive method
      • begins with specific observations from which you then draw conclusions or make generalizations
    • deductive method
      • begins with a generalization or theory and from it you predict specific observations, actions, or applications
summary
SUMMARY
  • Eric Wolf has called anthropology "the most scientific of the humanities and the most humanist of the sciences."
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