Insect pests of grain sorghum soybean and sunflower
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Insect Pests of Grain Sorghum, Soybean and Sunflower. Tom A. Royer Oklahoma State University. NCIS MPCI & Crop-Hail Sunflower, Soybeans, Cotton & Grain Sorghum School August 23, 2006. Insect Pests of Grain Sorghum.

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Insect pests of grain sorghum soybean and sunflower

Insect Pestsof Grain Sorghum, Soybean and Sunflower

Tom A. Royer

Oklahoma State University

NCIS MPCI & Crop-Hail

Sunflower, Soybeans, Cotton & Grain Sorghum School

August 23, 2006


Insect pests of grain sorghum

Insect Pests of Grain Sorghum

  • There are many potential pests that feed on the foliage and panicle. The results of their activities can cause seedling death, lodging and unfilled seed

Oklahoma State University


Insect pests of soybean

Insect Pests of Soybean

  • In the past, there were few pests that caused significant damage to soybean. In resent years, several pests have mad their presence felt throughout the soybean growing region.

Oklahoma State University


Insect pests of sunflower

Insect Pests of Sunflower

  • Sunflowers are native to North America, therefore we have a wide variety of insect pests and their associated natural enemies.

  • Damage occurs to the seedling, foliage, stalk, developing head,and seed.

Oklahoma State University


Insect pests of grain sorghum soybean and sunflower1

Insect Pests of Grain Sorghum, Soybean and Sunflower

  • There are numerous pests of these crops, but I will focus on the pests that can cause damage symptoms that resemble hail damage

Oklahoma State University


Insect pests of grain sorghum soybean and sunflower2

Insect Pests of Grain Sorghum, Soybean and Sunflower

  • Seed/seedling feeders

  • Stem/stalk feeders

  • Foliage feeders

  • Seed feeders

Oklahoma State University


Seed seedling feeders in sorghum soybean and sunflower

Seed/seedling Feeders in Sorghum, Soybean and Sunflower

  • Wireworms would be a problem for stand establishment in cool soils that delay rapid early growth (early-planted crop). Feed on germinating seed and newly emerged seedlings.

Oklahoma State University


Seed seedling feeders in sorghum soybean and sunflower1

Seed/seedling Feeders in Sorghum, Soybean and Sunflower

  • Seed corn maggots are a problem in cool soils with higher organic matter. (early-planted crop). Feed on germinating seed.

Oklahoma State University


Seedling feeders in sorghum soybean and sunflower

Seedling feeders in Sorghum, Soybean and Sunflower

  • Cutworms: several species attack these crops

    • Black cutworm

    • Dingy cutworm

    • Darksided cutworm

    • Sandhill cutworm

    • Many others

Oklahoma State University


Seedling feeders in sorghum soybean and sunflower1

Seedling feeders in Sorghum, Soybean and Sunflower

  • Look for stand loss

  • Look for weak, slow

  • growing plants

  • Slow growing conditions (cool weather) favors cutworm damage

  • Follow-up with presence of insect

Oklahoma State University


Seedling feeders in sorghum

Seedling feeders in sorghum

  • Chinch bugs:

    • Adults: 1/6 inches, black body and white wing covers

    • Nymphs: reddish-brown with band of white across back

    • 40-day lifecycle

Oklahoma State University


Seedling feeders in sorghum1

Seedling feeders in sorghum

Feed in groups at base of plant, may often feed below soil line, 7-10 bugs can stunt small seedlings

Migrate from wheat, often see most severe injury at edge of field

Oklahoma State University


Sorghum stalk feeders

Sorghum stalk feeders

  • Southwestern Corn Borer:

    • More of a pest of corn, it occasionally attacks sorghum

    • Hollows out stem, causing lodging. Not a major pest of sorghum

Oklahoma State University


Soybean stem feeders

Soybean stem feeders

  • Three-cornered alfalfa hopper

    • Piercing-sucking mouthparts. It feeds and circles around the stem effectively girdling it.

Oklahoma State University


Soybean stem feeders1

Soybean stem feeders

  • Soybean Stem Borer

    • Longhorned beetle.

    • Larva is damaging stage, tunneling in stem. They overwinter below girdle, in stem.

Oklahoma State University


Soybean stem feeders2

Soybean stem feeders

  • Soybean Stem Borer

    • Longhorned beetle.

    • Larva is damaging stage, tunneling in petioles and stems. They overwinter below girdle, in stem.

    • They also feed on giant ragweed, cocklebur

    • Larvae tunnel downward, causes lodging on mature plants

    • Damage often remains unnoticed because it occurs so late.

Oklahoma State University


Sunflower stem feeders

Sunflower stem feeders

  • Stem weevils:

    • Sunflower stem weevil (Cylindrocopturus adspersus)

    • Black stem weevil (Apion occidentale)

  • Dectes stem larva

Oklahoma State University


Sunflower stem feeders1

Sunflower stem feeders

  • Larvae feed on stem cortex, moving down stem as they mature

  • Cause weakened stalks, particularly a problem when harvest is delayed.

  • Can help transmit Phoma stem rot

Oklahoma State University


Soybean defoliators

Soybean defoliators

Fall Armyworm

Corn earworm

Grasshopper

Oklahoma State University


Sorghum defoliators

Sorghum defoliators

  • Fall armyworm/corn earworm:

    • Damages both whorl and panicle, but most often seen in whorl

    • Control in whorl is generally not profitable

Oklahoma State University


Sunflower defoliators

Sunflower defoliators

Grasshoppers

Thistle Caterpillar

Sunflower Beetle

Oklahoma State University


Defoliators in sunflower nature of damage

Defoliators In SunflowerNature of Damage

  • Pests that feed on foliage. Chewing mouthparts.

  • Damage leaves, causing indirect damage to sunflower yield

  • Reduce photosynthesis, slow growth, shift plant’s emphasis to compensating for foliage loss

  • Probably information that would help with assessing yield loss from hail.

Oklahoma State University


Sorghum seed feeders

Sorghum seed feeders

  • Corn earworm/Fall armyworm:

  • Damages both whorl and panicle

  • When feeding on head, they will eat seed until it passes “soft dough”.

Oklahoma State University


Sorghum seed feeders1

Corn earworm/Fall armyworm:

Damages both whorl and panicle

When feeding on head, they will eat seed until it passes “soft dough”.

Sorghum seed feeders

Oklahoma State University


Sorghum seed feeders2

Sorghum seed feeders

  • Sorghum midge:

    • Larvae feed for 7 - 9 days, total lifecycle is about 2 weeks

    • Larvae completely destroy the seed

    • Adults emerge, leaving white pupal case dangling from floret and can re-infest late blooming suckers or fields. Heads are “blasted”.

    • Johnson grass is alternate host: do not overwinter well in Oklahoma

Oklahoma State University


Soybean seed feeders

Soybean seed feeders

  • Corn earworm

    • Also known as podworm, feeds on foliage and maturing pods

    • Occurs in mid to late season

    • Can severely injure pods

Oklahoma State University


Soybean seed feeders1

Soybean seed feeders

  • Bean leaf beetle

    • Overwinters as adult: 1-3 generations

    • Feeds on foliage and been pods.

    • Most damaging to pods.

Oklahoma State University


Soybean seed feeders2

Soybean seed feeders

  • Stinkbugs

    • Typical “stinkbug” shape, green about 7/8 to 1 inch long

    • Piercing-sucking mouthparts

    • Lay barrel-shaped eggs, often coppery colored

Oklahoma State University


Soybean seed feeders3

Soybean seed feeders

  • Piercing-sucking mouthparts inserted into developing pods

  • Cause shriveled, misshapen, and discolored seeds that are lower in weight

Oklahoma State University


Sunflower seed feeders

Sunflower seed feeders

  • Head clipper weevils chew holes around the stem, effectively girdling it. It breaks over, and could be mistaken for hail injury.

Oklahoma State University


Sunflower seed feeders1

Sunflower seed feeders

  • Sunflower midge is a pest, usually in the northern plains, that causes the head grow in a distorted way (folding, convoluted). It could mimic hail damage under the right circumstances.

Oklahoma State University


Grasshoppers in soybeans

Grasshoppers in Soybeans

  • Grasshoppers will feed on pods, causing chewing injury. This also allows entry for seed disease-causing organisms.

Oklahoma State University


Grasshoppers in sorghum

Grasshoppers in Sorghum

  • Grasshoppers will feed on developing seed.

  • Grasshoppers may be more of a problem in conservation tillage because they may be laying eggs in fields which won’t be disturbed by tillage. Eggs may survive better, hatch slightly later, and grasshoppers may be more uniformly distributed in the field.

Oklahoma State University


Grasshoppers in sunflowers

Grasshoppers in Sunflowers

  • Grasshoppers are a sporadic problem in Oklahoma, because they can build up in large numbers and caused physical damage to the leaves and seed.

Oklahoma State University


Insect pests of grain sorghum soybean and sunflower3

Insect Pestsof Grain Sorghum, Soybean and Sunflower

Tom A. Royer

Oklahoma State University

NCIS MPCI & Crop-Hail

Sunflower, Soybeans, Cotton & Grain Sorghum School

August 23, 2006


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