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Evo -Ed: A Case-based Approach to Teaching Evolution. Peter White, Merle Heidemann , and Jim Smith Michigan State University East Lansing, MI USA. Evolution of Toxin Resistance in Clams. Evolution of Toxin Resistance in Clams. Algal blooms affecting marine ecosystems.

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evo ed a case based approach to teaching evolution
Evo-Ed: A Case-based Approach to Teaching Evolution

Peter White, Merle Heidemann, and Jim Smith

Michigan State University

East Lansing, MI USA

slide3

Evolution of Toxin Resistance in Clams

Algal blooms affecting marine ecosystems.

Food webs and biomagnification of toxins.

Human interaction with ecosystem.

Different allele frequencies in geographically isolated populations due to different environmental conditions.

Mendelian genetics, inheritance and dominant-recessive relationships.

Single nucleotide substitution mutation that changes the structure and function of a protein.

Action potential transmission through a neuron.

Can you connect any of these topics to the curriculum you teach? If so, which ones?

teaching evolution
Teaching Evolution

Teaching evolution necessitates the teaching of:

  • Natural Selection
  • Genetics
  • Cell biology
  • Central Dogma (DNA  RNA  Proteins)
  • Population Genetics / Biogeography
  • Community Ecology
  • Phylogenetics
  • …and more!
slide6

Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems

  • Ecology
  • Biodiversity
  • Animal Behavior
  • Inheritance and Variation of Traits
  • Genetics
  • DNA and mutation
  • Cell division
  • Central Dogma
  • Structure and Function
  • Cell Biology
  • Physiology

May, 2013

  • Matter and Energy in Organisms and Ecosystems
  • Photosynthesis
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Species Interactions
  • Natural Selection and Evolution
  • Natural Selection
  • Phylogenetics
  • Population Ecology
slide7

Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems

  • Ecology
  • Biodiversity
  • Animal Behavior
  • Inheritance and Variation of Traits
  • Genetics
  • DNA and mutation
  • Cell division
  • Central Dogma
  • Structure and Function
  • Cell Biology
  • Physiology

May, 2013

  • Matter and Energy in Organisms and Ecosystems
  • Photosynthesis
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Species Interactions
  • Natural Selection and Evolution
  • Natural Selection
  • Phylogenetics
  • Population Ecology
slide8

Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems

  • Ecology
  • Biodiversity
  • Animal Behavior
  • Inheritance and Variation of Traits
  • Genetics
  • DNA and mutation
  • Cell division
  • Central Dogma
  • Structure and Function
  • Cell Biology
  • Physiology

May, 2013

  • Matter and Energy in Organisms and Ecosystems
  • Photosynthesis
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Species Interactions
  • Natural Selection and Evolution
  • Natural Selection
  • Phylogenetics
  • Population Ecology
slide9

Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems

  • Ecology
  • Biodiversity
  • Animal Behavior

EVOLUTION

  • Inheritance and Variation of Traits
  • Genetics
  • DNA and mutation
  • Cell division
  • Central Dogma
  • Structure and Function
  • Cell Biology
  • Physiology

May, 2013

  • Matter and Energy in Organisms and Ecosystems
  • Photosynthesis
  • Cellular Respiration
  • Species Interactions
  • Natural Selection and Evolution
  • Natural Selection
  • Phylogenetics
  • Population Ecology
slide10

“[Students] leave schools without fully understanding how well supported evolutionary theory is.”

  • “Many teachers are not scientifically capable of teaching evolution using modern approaches.”
slide11

Develop cases that promote the learning of evolution as an integrative biological theory.

  • Provide teaching resources for science teachers so they can teach evolution as an integrative biological theory.
slide12

Trichromatic Vision Evolution in Primates

Fur Color Evolution in Beach Mice

Seed Taste Evolution in Field Peas

Toxin Resistance Evolution in Clams

www.evo-ed.com

what is a protein

What is a protein?

Draw a picture.

What does this protein do?

Intro Bio II (LB145) S12Minute Paper #1

what is a protein1
What is a protein?

Draw a picture. What does this protein do?

Student “A”

“A protein is a substance that is made up of amino acids. DNA is a protein. Proteins are containers for genetic information to be stored in. This protein houses material that determines hair color.”

Student “B”

“A protein is a very important concept in cellular growth. I couldn’t, for the life of me, draw you one right now but hopefully I will be able to soon because I honestly have no idea where to even begin. (Added later) A protein is a chain of amino acids.”

Students have very crude mental models of proteins

slide20

Mouse Fur Color

MC1R protein is stimulated and facilitates cAMP production.

cAMP is used to regulate gene expression.

c(tyr)

Tyrp1

Tyrp2

p

mouse case a sample lesson
Mouse Case:A Sample Lesson

https://www.msu.edu/course/lb/145/smith/s13/index.html

slide29

The Evo-Ed Project:

  • A Case Approach to Evolution Education
  • Integrative cases that explore trait evolution across biological scales.

Is there a relationship between the case approach and learning?

slide30

The Assessment Tool for Evaluating Evolution Knowledge

(ATEEK)

  • Iterative design process (Anderson and Bishop 1990)
    • Determine essential concepts important to evolution.
    • Design an assessment tool that probes for those concepts.
    • Field test the assessment tool.
    • Evaluate student responses. Revise a given question if the pattern of responses differs from the expected pattern.
    • Field test the revised assessment tool.
    • Repeat steps 4 and 5 until satisfied with the pattern of answers.
slide31

The ATEEK

Q1.Jaguars can have an orange coat or a black coat.

Orange jaguars have either two G alleles or one G allele

and one g allele, whereas black jaguars have two g alleles.

When a jaguar has the genotype gg, what happens inside its cells so that a black coat is produced?

Q2. Toxican mushrooms contain a toxin that causes vomiting when ingested. Recently, some Toxican mushrooms were found that did not produce the toxin.

Describe in detail what might have happened at the molecular level so that these mushrooms no longer produce this toxin?

Q3. The non-poisonous Toxican mushroom has become more frequent in mushroom populations and poisonous Toxican mushrooms have become rare.

Define Natural Selection and use it to explain this scenario.

Q4. Considering genetic mutation –

Describe, at the molecular level, what a mutation is.

Use your answer from part (i) to describe the process whereby a mutation results in a change at the phenotype level.

slide32

www.evo-ed.com

Scoring the ATEEK

  • A response could be scored as 0, 1, or 2.
    • 0: Answer is wrong of mostly wrong.
    • 1: Answer is partially right.
    • 2: Answer is completely correct or mostly correct.
  • Average student GAIN calculated for each question

GAIN = Post-Course ATEEK Score – Pre-Course ATEEK Score

slide33

Q1: Jaguars can have an orange coat or a black coat. Orange jaguars have either two G alleles or one G allele and one g allele, whereas black jaguars have two g alleles.

When a jaguar has the genotype gg, what happens inside its cells so that a black coat is produced?

Gain (post-course – pre-course)

Learned evolution using integrative cases

Did not learn evolution using integrative cases

slide34

Q2: Toxican mushrooms contain a toxin that causes vomiting when ingested. Recently, some Toxican mushrooms were found that did not produce the toxin.

Describe in detail what might have happened at the molecular level so that these mushrooms no longer produce this toxin?

Gain (post-course – pre-course)

Learned evolution using integrative cases

Did not learn evolution using integrative cases

slide35

Q3: The non-poisonous Toxican mushroom has become more frequent in mushroom populations and poisonous Toxican mushrooms have become rare.

Define Natural Selection and use it to explain this scenario.

Gain (post-course – pre-course)

Learned evolution using integrative cases

Did not learn evolution using integrative cases

slide36

Q4i: Considering genetic mutation –

Describe, at the molecular level, what a mutation is.

Gain (post-course – pre-course)

Learned evolution using integrative cases

Did not learn evolution using integrative cases

slide37

Q4ii: Use your answer from part (i) to describe the process whereby a mutation results in a change at the phenotype level.

Gain (post-course – pre-course)

Learned evolution using integrative cases

Did not learn evolution using integrative cases

slide38

The Evo-Ed Project:

  • “[Students] leave schools without fully understanding how well supported evolutionary theory is.”
  • Cases may help students understand how novel phenotypes arise starting from the most basic building blocks of life.
  • Cases give students concrete examples of evolution.
  • Integrative approach good idea anyways? (Data seem to support it too)
slide39

The Evo-Ed Project:

  • “Many teachers are not scientifically capable of teaching evolution using modern approaches.”
  • Evo-Ed Website:http://www.evo-ed.com
  • Explanation of cases andcorresponding .pptresources.
slide40

Questions?

Discussion?

slide41

Thanks to Kathie Ellis, Joe Murray, Miles Loh, Mark Kauth, Kendra Cheruvelil, Chuck Elzinga, Gerry Urquhart, Cheryl Murphy, Andy Jarosz, Doug Luckie, Richard Lenski, Craig Nelson and Lyman Briggs College for their contributions to the project.

Acknowledgements:Partial support for this work was provided by the NSF TUES program under Award No. 1043876. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

Questions?

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