Data collection
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DATA COLLECTION. Compilation and interpretation of primary and secondary sources of information. The integration of different sources will consolidate the write up of the report. SOURCES OF INFORMATION. Primary Source Data is collected by researcher himself Data is gathered

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DATA COLLECTION

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Data collection

DATA COLLECTION

  • Compilation and interpretation of primary and secondary sources of information.

  • The integration of different sources will consolidate the write up of the report.


Sources of information

SOURCES OF INFORMATION

  • Primary Source

  • Data is collected by

  • researcher himself

  • Data is gathered

  • through questionnaire,

  • interviews,

  • observations etc.

  • Secondary Source

  • Data collected,

  • compiled or

  • written by other

  • researchers eg. books,

  • journals, newspapers

  • Any reference must

  • be acknowledged


Steps to collect data

STEPS TO COLLECT DATA

REVIEW & COMPILE SECONDARY SOURCE INFORMATION

(Referred to in the BACKGROUND/ INTRODUCTION section of report)

PLAN & DESIGN DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENTS

TO GATHER PRIMARY INFORMATION

(Referred to in the FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS &

RECOMMENDATIONS sections of report)

DATA COLLECTION

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION


Methods used to collect primary source data

METHODS USED TO COLLECTPRIMARY SOURCE DATA

  • Interviews

  • Questionnaires

  • Survey

  • Experimentation

  • Case Study

  • Observation

  • However, for a small-scale study, the most commonly used

  • methods are interviews, survey questionnaires and observations.


Data collection

Effective way

of gathering

information

Involves verbal

and non-verbal

communications

INTERVIEW

Can be conducted

face to face, by telephone,

online or through mail


Steps to an effective interview

Steps To An Effective Interview

Prepare your interview schedule

Select your subjects/ key informants

Conduct the interview

Analyze and interpret data collected from the interview


Data collection

The most common

data collection instrument

Useful to collect

quantitative and qualitative

information

Survey

Questionnaire

  • Should contain 3 elements:

  • Introduction – to explain the objectives

  • Instructions – must be clear, simple language & short

  • User-friendly – avoid difficult or ambiguous questions


2 basic types of survey questions

Open-ended Questions

Free-response

(Text Open End)

Fill-in relevant information

Close-ended Questions

Dichotomous question

Multiple-choice

Rank

Scale

Categorical

Numerical

2 Basic Types of survey questions:

Note: For specific examples and students’ activities on each question style,

please refer to the notes on Data Collection in the e-learning.


Steps to an effective survey questionnaire

Steps To An Effective Survey Questionnaire

Prepare your survey questions

(Formulate & choose types of questions, order them, write instructions, make copies)

Select your respondents/sampling

Random/Selected

Administer the survey questionnaire

(date, venue, time )

Tabulate data collected

(Statistical analysis-frequency/mean/correlation/% )

Analyze and interpret data collected

A sample of complete survey questionnaire

http://www.custominsight.com/demo/form_widgets.rtf


Data collection

Observe verbal &

non-verbal communication,

surrounding atmosphere,

culture & situation

Need to keep

meticulous records of

the observations

Observations

Can be done through discussions,

observations of habits, rituals,

review of documentation,

experiments


Steps to an effective observation

Steps To An Effective Observation

Determine what needs to be observed

(Plan, prepare checklist, how to record data)

Select your participants

Random/Selected

Conduct the observation

(venue, duration, recording materials, take photographs )

Compile data collected

Analyze and interpret data collected


Data analysis

DATA ANALYSIS

Summary sheet

1. To analyse data from interviews and observation, use

Checklist

Manually

2. To analyse data from questionnaires, use

SPSS

  • 3. In a small scale study, the most common forms of statistical

  • analysis presented are:

    • Frequency

    • Mean

    • Percentage


Data interpretation

DATA INTERPRETATION

  • It involves 2 terms

    • ‘Results’ – presentation of data/findings (statistics)

    • ‘Discussion’ – interpretation of data/findings

  • Things to consider when interpreting your data:

    • Interpret findings based on the purpose and

    • objectives of your study

    • Relate the findings to real life context

    • Use persuasive language to convince your readers

    • to see the research from your point of view.

    • Order your interpretation to highlight the most important

    • findings

    • Include limitations to your research.

    • Use simple, clear language


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