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http occawlonline pearsoned com bookbind pubbooks bc campbell concepts 4 chapter1 deluxe html
  • Bookmark this website. You will be using it throughout the year. It will be easier for you to cut and paste it, then save.
  • Each chapter has activities, activity quizzes, and chapter quizzes.
  • The chapter/activities quiz will be due at the end of each chapter. You will submit the work through the website to me and mail a copy to yourself. The directions to do this are at the bottom of each activity. Please be sure to fill in your name! You should save a copy before sending until you know I received it.
the scientific study of life

The Scientific Study of Life

Go on to the Campbell Biology site, Chapter 1 activities, do them as we learn the work (they are listed by section), and then take the activity quiz and submit it to me when we are done with the chapter.

introduction science to have knowledge
Introduction: Science“to have knowledge”
  • Biology: study of living/once-living things
  • Biologist: person who studies life’s interactions
    • Living things do not exist in isolation
    • Living things depend on other living and nonliving things
    • Studied to ensure planet’s future
1 1 life s levels of organization define the scope of biology

1.1 Life’s levels of organization define the scope of biology

Read pp. 1-2

Activity 1A (1st of 4)

increasing levels of biological organization
Increasing levels of biological organization

Interbreeding group of organisms (same species)


Organelles: cell parts w/specific functions

Molecules:atom clusters covalently bonds

Macromolecules: polymersof biological molecules

discovery science

Discovery Science

Seeking natural causes for natural phenomena:

Study of structures and processes

that can be observed and measured

either directly or indirectly

with the help of tools, such as microscopes,

that extend our senses.

In hypothetico-deductive reasoning (hypothesis-driven science), scientists use the “scientific method”
  • Seek explanations
Inductive reasoning:

Specific observations to general conclusion (pattern)

Bottom to top

Predicts future

Deductive reasoning:

General conclusion to specific observations

Top to bottom

Eliminate incorrect answers

scientific method

Experimental group/Control groupdiffer only in one variable

Independent (manipulated) variable

Dependent (responding) variable

Standardized or controlled variables: held constant

Control group: basis for comparison


Scientific Method
hypothesis athletes have better cardiovascular fitness than nonathletes
HypothesisAthletes have better cardiovascular fitness than nonathletes.
  • Dependent Variable(s): Pulse rate, blood pressure.
  • Independent Variable: Athletic training.
  • Control(s): Subjects who have had no athletic training (to have a comparison group of subjects); readings taken before exercise (to get a baseline measurement for each subject).
  • Replication: 3 subjects in each group. Each subject will perform exercise once.
  • Brief Explanation of Experiment
    • The pulse rate and blood pressure of athletes and nonathletes will be measured. The subjects will then perform 5 minutes of aerobic exercise. The pulse rate and blood pressure of each subject will be measured again immediately after exercise.
  • Predictions
    • We think that the pulse rates and blood pressure of athletes will be lower after exercise and will return to normal rates more quickly than those of nonathletes, indicating better cardiovascular fitness of athletes.
    • Recruit three athletes to be subjects. Our lab team will be the nonathlete subjects.
    • Record resting pulse rate and blood pressure for each subject.
    • All subjects will run up and down the stairs for 5 minutes.
    • Pulse rate and blood pressure of each subject will be measured immediately after the exercise.
    • Pulse rate will continue to be taken until it returns to the resting value. The time taken for each subject’s pulse to return to normal will be recorded.
    • Measure and record blood pressure for each person when the resting pulse rate is reached.
  • What other independent variables might be investigated using these techniques of measuring pulse and blood pressure?
    • (age, gender, weight, race, stress, consumption of drugs-caffeine), smoking, time of day)
Laboratory activities and experiments involved the use of the scientific method. Listed in the left column are the names of parts of this method. The right column contain definitions. Next to each word in the left column, write the letter of the definition that best matches that word.
  • ___7. Hypothesis a. Prediction about the outcome of an experiment
  • ___8. Manipulated Variable b. What you measure or observe to obtain (independent) your results
  • ___9. Responding Variable c. Measurements and other observations


  • ___10. Controlling Variables d. Statement that sums up what you learn from an experiment
  • ___11. Observation e. Factor that is changed in an experiment
  • ___12. Data f. What the person performing the activity sees, hears, feels, smells, or tastes
  • ___13. Conclusion g. Keeping all variables the same except the manipulated variable
Read the following statements and then answer the questions.
  • You and your friend are walking along a beach in Maine on January 15, at 8:00 AM.
  • You notice a thermometer on a nearby building that reads –1oC.
  • You also notice that there is snow on the roof of the building and icicles hanging from the roof.
  • You further notice a pool of seawater in the sand near the ocean.
  • Your friend looks at the icicles and the pool and says, “How come the water on the roof is frozen and the seawater is not?”
  • You answer, “I think that the salt in the sea water keeps it from freezing at –1oC.”
  • You go on to say, “And I think under the same conditions, the same thing will happen tomorrow.”
  • Your friend asks, “How can you be sure” You answer, “I’m going to get some fresh water and some salt water and expose them to a temperature of –1oC and see what happens.”


  • In which statement is a prediction made?__________________________
  • Which statement states a problem?_______________________________
  • In which statement is an experiment described?_____________________
  • Which statement contains a hypothesis?___________________________
  • Which statements contain data?_________________________________
  • Which statements describe observations?__________________________
Read the following statements and then answer the questions.
  • A scientist wants to find out why seawater freezes at a lower temperature than fresh water.
  • The scientist goes to the library and reads a number of articles about the physical properties of solutions.
  • The scientist also reads about the composition of seawater.
  • The scientist travels to a nearby beach and observes the conditions there. The scientist notes the taste of seawater and other factors such as waves, wind, air pressure, temperature and humidity.
  • After considering all this information, the scientist sits at a desk and writes, “If seawater has salt in it, it will freeze at a lower temperature than fresh water.”
  • The scientist goes back to the laboratory and does the following:
    • Fills each of two beakers with 1 liter of fresh water.
    • Dissolves 35 grams of table salt in one of the beakers.
    • Places both beakers in a freezer at a temperature of –1oC.
    • Leaves the beakers in a freezer for 24 hours.
  • After 24 hours, the scientist examines both beakers and finds the fresh water to be frozen. The saltwater is still liquid.
  • The scientist writes in a notebook, “It appears that saltwater freezes at a lower temperature than fresh water does.”
  • The scientist continues, “I suggest that the reason seawater freezes at a lower temperature is that seawater contains dissolved salts, while fresh water does not.”


  • Which statement(s) contain conclusions?__________________________
  • Which statement(s) contain a hypothesis?_________________________
  • Which statement(s) contain observations?_________________________
  • Which statement(s) describe an experiment?_______________________
  • In which statement is the problem described?_______________________
  • Which statement(s) contain data?________________________________
  • Which is the manipulated variable in the experiment?__________________________________________
  • What is the responding variable in the experiment?____________________________________________

Eubacteria, or true bacteria

Archaebacteria-methanogens, extreme thermophiles, halophiles

Prokaryotes w/out nucleus



photosynthetic, unicellular, including algae

decomposers (mushrooms/molds/mildew/yeast)

Eukaryotes w/nucleus and organelles

multicellularheterotrophs, cells w/out cell wall

multicellular, photosynthetic autotrophs, cellulose cell walls

Taxonomic category above kingdom level

features all organisms have in common
Features all organisms have in common
  • Order: all organisms exhibit complex organization
  • Regulation: maintenance of internal environment even when external environment changes
  • Growthanddevelopment: pattern of growth and development characteristic of species
  • Energyutilization: energy transformed to perform life’s activities
  • Responsetoenvironment: all organisms respond to environmental stimuli
  • Reproduction: DNA is precisely replicated and all organisms reproduce their own kind
  • Evolution: reproduction underlies capacity of species to evolve over time
read pp 8 12 activity 1d last one

1.6 Evolution explains the unity and diversity of life1.7 Living organisms and their environments form interconnecting webs1.8 Biology is connected to our lives in many ways

Read pp. 8-12

Activity 1D (last one)

theory vs law
Theory vs. Law:
  • Theory: results from continual verification and refinement of hypothesis
    • Explanation of natural phenomenon
    • Supported by large body of scientific evidence
    • Obtained from many investigations/observations
    • Can not be proven, only disproved/supported
  • Scientific law: describes, not explains
    • Concise statement describing natural phenomenon
natural selection
Natural Selection
  • Mechanism by which evolution proceeds
  • Proposed by Charles Darwin
  • Certain heritable characteristics are favored over others when subjected to environmental pressures
  • Adaptations: inherited characteristics that enhance organism’s ability to survive and reproduce in particular environment