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Fibre Channel – Chapter 9. Fibre Channel Introduction. Originally developed for mainframe & supercomputing environments to connect together high speed clusters & storage

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Fibre channel chapter 9

Fibre Channel – Chapter 9


Fibre channel introduction

Fibre ChannelIntroduction

  • Originally developed for mainframe & supercomputing environments to connect together high speed clusters & storage

  • Development began in 1988 under the auspices of the ANSI T11 committee (device level interfaces) and culminated in the approval of the ANSI standard in 1994

  • Besides its use as a very high bandwidth I/O channel technology, there is increasing interest in Fibre Channel as a LAN technology because of its high speed and unique combination of channel & network oriented properties:

    • Data-type qualifiers for routing data into specific interface buffers

    • Link-level constructs designed to support individual I/O operations

    • Support for existing I/O interface specifications (SCSI, HIPPI, etc.)

    • Full multiplexing capabilities

    • Peer-to-peer connectivity between any two ports in a FC network

    • Ability to internetwork with other LAN, WAN, & I/O technologies

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel introduction1

Fibre ChannelIntroduction

  • Comparsion of Fibre Channel with Gigabit Ethernet and ATM [Table 9.1]

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel architecture

Fibre ChannelArchitecture

  • Designed to provide a common, efficient, high-speed transport to a wide variety of devices through a single port type

  • Requirements outlined by the Fibre Channel Association:

    • Full-duplex links over a fiber pair (one transmit/one receive)

    • Bi-directional performance up to 3.2-Gbps on a single link

    • Support over distances up to 10 kilometers

    • Small connectors for high density applications

    • High-capacity utilization with distance insensitivity

    • Greater connectivity than existing multi-drop channels

    • Broad availability at reasonable cost

    • Support for multiple cost/performance levels, from PCs to clusters

    • Ability to carry multiple protocols and command sets

  • The best way to meet such demanding requirements was to develop a transport mechanism based on simple point-to-point links & a switching network

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel terminology

Fibre ChannelTerminology

  • Fibre Channel, having a different heritage than other LAN/WAN technologies, has different terminology [Table 9.2]

    • Dedicated Connection: A circuit guaranteed and retained by the fabric for two specified N_Ports

    • Exchange: The basic mechanism that transfers information, consisting of one or more related non-concurrent sequences in one or both directions

    • Fabric: The entity that interconnects various N_Ports attached to it and handle the routing of frames

    • Intermix: A mode of service that reserves the full FC capacity for a dedicated (Class 1) connection but allows the transport of additional connectionless data if space is available

    • Node: A collection of one or more N_Ports

    • Operation: A set of one or more, possibly concurrent, exchanges that is associated with a logical construct above the FC-2 layer

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel terminology continued

Fibre ChannelTerminology (continued)

  • Fibre Channel, having a different heritage than other LAN/WAN technologies, has different terminology [Table 9.2]

    • Dedicated Connection: A circuit guaranteed and retained by the fabric for two

    • Originator: The logical function associated with an N_Ports that initiates an exchange

    • Port: The hardware entity within a node that performs data communications over a FC link

    • Responder: The logical function in a N_Port responsible for supporting an exchange initiated by an originator

    • Sequence: A set of one or more data frames with a common sequence ID transmitted unidirectionally from one N_Port to another N_Port, with a corresponding response, if applicable, transmitted in response to each data frame

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel terminology1

Fibre ChannelTerminology

  • Fibre Channel Elements

    • The key elements of a FC network are the end devices called nodes and the collection of switching elements called the fabric

    • Communication between nodes across a FC network consists of transmission of frames across the point-to-point links & fabric

    • Each node has one or more N_Ports for connection to the fabric

    • Nodes connect to F_Ports on the fabric via bi-directional point-to-point links

      • Fabrics can be a single switch or a general collection of switching elements

      • Frames may be buffered within the fabric, making it possible for nodes to connect to the fabric at different data rates

      • The fabric is a switched architecture, not a shared access medium, so no MAC issues are encountered and no MAC sublayer is necessary

    • The FC network scales easily in terms of ports, data rate, and distance covered and through its layered protocol architecture interworks with existing LAN and I/O protocols

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel terminology2

Fibre ChannelTerminology

  • Basic Fibre Channel Architectural Diagram

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel example architecture

Fibre ChannelExample Architecture

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel protocol specifications

Fibre ChannelProtocol Specifications

  • Fibre Channel Protocol Architecture

    • The Fibre Channel standard reference model is organized into five levels [Figure 9.3 and Table 9.3]

      • These are not ‘levels’ in the strict sense of the OSI model but are instead functional groupings of services and/or definitions

      • The standard does not dictate actual implementations, relationships between the levels, or the specific interfaces between levels

    • Levels FC-0, FC-1, and FC-2 are defined together in a standard called the Fibre Channel Physical and Signaling Interface (FC-PH)

    • No final standard has been issued for FC-3

    • A number of standards have been developed at FC-4 specifying how Fibre Channel interfaces to existing LAN and I/O technologies

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel protocol specifications1

Fibre ChannelProtocol Specifications

  • Fibre Channel Protocol Architecture (continued)

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel protocol specifications2

Fibre ChannelProtocol Specifications

  • Fibre Channel Protocol Architecture (continued)

    • Details on the FC-0 level

      • A variety of physical media and data rates are allowed:

        • Data rates: 100-Mbps to 3.2-Gbps

        • Media: fiber optic, coaxial cable, and STP

        • Distance: 50 m to 10 km depending on data rate and media

    • The FC-1 level uses a 8B/10B encoding scheme in which 8 bits of data from the FC-2 level are encoded into a 10 bit binary symbol

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel protocol specifications3

Fibre ChannelProtocol Specifications

  • Fibre Channel Protocol Architecture (continued)

    • The FC-2 level is responsible for the transmission of data between N_Ports, which requires the following:

      • Addressing of N_Ports

      • Permissible topologies of the fabric

      • Classes of service

      • Segmentation and reassembly of frames as well as higher level grouping of frames (sequences and exchanges)

      • Sequencing, flow control, and error control

    • The FC-3 level provides a common set of services across multiple N_Ports

      • Striping: the process of using multiple ports to transmit a single data unit in parallel

      • Hunt groups: allows a connection to be established to any available N_Port in the group

      • Multicast (and broadcast)

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel protocol specifications4

Fibre ChannelProtocol Specifications

  • Fibre Channel Protocol Architecture (continued)

    • The FC-4 level defines how other protocols interoperate with Fibre Channel (specifically FC-PH)

      • SCSI – a common device interface standard for computer peripherals

      • HIPPI – a high speed I/O channel used in mainframe and supercomputing environments

      • IEEE 802 – how IEEE 802 MAC frames map to Fibre Channel frames

      • ATM

      • IP – how to map packets into Fibre Channel frames (RFC 2625)

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel physical media and topologies

Fibre ChannelPhysical Media and Topologies

  • A major strength of Fibre Channel is that it provides a range of options for the physical medium, the data rate on that medium, and the topology of the network

  • Transmission Media

    • A special shorthand nomenclature has been developed for FC media – it basically consists of the following:

      • Speed-Medium-Transmitter-Distance

      • FC-0 options are listed in Figure 9.4

    • Allowable Media Types

      • Fiber Optic: both SM and both 50m and 62.5m MM

      • Coaxial Cable: three types of 75 ohm cable are specified, a thick RG-6/U, a thinner RG-59/U, and a miniature coax cable 0.1 inches in diameter

      • Shielded Twisted Pair: two types of 150 ohm cables are specified for use over short distances at data rates up to 200-Mbps: EIA-568 Type 1 STP: (two shielded twisted pair) or EIA-568 Type 2 STP (four pair STP)

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel physical media and topologies1

Fibre ChannelPhysical Media and Topologies

  • Topologies

    • The most general FC topology is the fabric (switched) topology

    • Four basic topologies [Figure 9.5] are available in Fibre Channel: point-to-point, fabric, arbitrated loop (no hub), and arbitrated loop with hub

      • Point-to-point connects two end nodes with no switches or routing

      • The fabric topology can contain an arbitrary number of switches, some connecting to nodes and others that just provide transport between other switches

        • The fabric topology allows for easy scalability

        • In the fabric topology the overhead on nodes is minimized; they are only responsible for managing the point-to-point link to their local switch

    • Each port requires a unique address to allow frames to be delivered to the proper destination

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel physical media and topologies2

Fibre ChannelPhysical Media and Topologies

  • Topologies (continued)

    • The arbitrated loop topology allows up to 126 nodes to be connected in a simple, low-cost loop

      • The ports on the loop are a special kind called NL_Ports because they must perform special functions associated with loop management

      • Operation is roughly equivalent to other token ring protocols

      • There is a token acquisition protocol controlling loop access

    • The fabric & loop topologies can be connected as long as one node can act as both an arbitrated loop & a fabric node that participates in routing decisions on the fabric

    • The topology of a given FC network is discovered automatically as part of network initialization

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel physical media and topologies3

Fibre ChannelPhysical Media and Topologies

  • Fibre Channel Topologies (continued)

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel framing classes of service

Fibre ChannelFraming & Classes of Service

  • Framing Protocol

    • The FC-2 layer defines the rules for the transfer of frames between nodes, comparable to the OSI data link layer

    • FC-2 specifies the types of frames, procedures for the exchange of frames, frame formats, flow control, and classes of service

    • Classes of Service

      • FC-2 defines multiple classes of service; these classes are determined by the way communication is established between two ports and their flow control and error control capabilities

      • Five classes of service are currently defined:

        • Class 1: Acknowledged Connection-oriented service

        • Class 2: Acknowledged Connectionless service

        • Class 3: Unacknowledged Connectionless service

        • Class 4: Fractional Bandwidth Connection-oriented service

        • Class 6: Unidirectional Connection service

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel framing classes of service1

Fibre ChannelFraming & Classes of Service

  • FC-2 Classes of Service

    • Class 1 Service (Acknowledged Connection-oriented service)

      • Provides a dedicated path through the fabric which behaves to the end nodes like a point-to-point link

      • Also provides a guaranteed data rate with sequenced delivery of frames

      • The end node requests the setup of a Class 1 service connection using a special start-of-frame delimiter (SOFc1)

      • Class 1 service is advantageous for long constant bandwidth transfers of data (e.g. - streaming backups over a network)

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel framing classes of service2

Fibre ChannelFraming & Classes of Service

  • FC-2 Classes of Service (continued)

    • Class 2 Service (Acknowledged Connectionless service)

      • Provides an acknowledged data transmission service without the overhead of setting up a connection through the fabric

      • Acknowledgements frames are returned by the receiving port, if a delivery cannot be made due to congestion a busy frame is returned

      • This is not the case with frames that cannot be delivered due to frame errors

      • Sequenced delivery is not guaranteed; frames can take different paths through the fabric if possible

      • Multiplexing of frames from different sources and/or destinations is allowed

      • Class 2 service is good for Storage Area Networks (SANs)

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel framing classes of service3

Fibre ChannelFraming & Classes of Service

  • FC-2 Classes of Service (continued)

    • Class 3 Service (Unacknowledged Connectionless service)

      • Provides a basic datagram service with no connection setup

      • No guaranteed nor acknowledged delivery

      • Good for short bursts of data or delivery of multicast/broadcast data

    • Class 4 Service (Fractional Bandwidth Connection-oriented service)

      • Provides a service similar to Class 1 but also provides Quality of Service (QoS) guarantees and reservations

      • Allows the specification of guaranteed bandwidth & bounded latency

      • QoS parameters established separately for each direction

      • Good for time-critical & real-time applications like videoconferencing

    • Class 6 Service (Unidirectional Connection service)

      • Provides the reliable unicast delivery found in Class 1 but also supports reliable multicast and preemption

      • Good for video streaming and broadcasting

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel frames sequences and exchanges

Fibre ChannelFrames, sequences, and exchanges

  • There is much more to the FC-2 layer than frames & classes of service; it defines a set of functional building blocks for higher layer services

    • Also defines a number of protocols used to implement services at a port

    • Typical protocols are creating or terminating a connection, transferring data, etc.

    • Protocols consist of an exchange of information between N_Ports, which in turn consists of sequences, and sequences a composed of a related set of frames

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel frames sequences and exchanges1

Fibre ChannelFrames, sequences, and exchanges

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel frames sequences and exchanges continued

Fibre ChannelFrames, sequences, and exchanges (continued)

  • There are two general types of frames: data and control

    • The three types of data frames are used to transfer higher level information between N_Ports

      • FC-4 Device Data: used to transfer higher-layer data units from protocols specified in FC-4 standards (IP, SCSI, etc.)

      • FC-4 Video Data: used to transmit streamed video between buffers without an intermediate storage

      • Link Data: used to support higher level control information between N_Ports

    • There are currently three types of link control frames defined:

      • Link Continue: functions as an acknowledgement in Fibre Channel sliding-window based data transfer

      • Link Response: used as a negative acknowledgement in FC sliding-window based data transfer

      • Link Command: A reset command used to reinitialize the sliding-window based transfer mechanism

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel frames sequences and exchanges continued1

Fibre ChannelFrames, sequences, and exchanges (continued)

  • Sequences

    • With Fibre Channel a maximum frame size is imposed at the FC-2 layer but is transparent to higher layers

    • Higher layers set down chunks of data to FC-2, which may need to break them up into a sequence of frames

    • The sequence of data frames needed to carry a single higher-layer chunk of data may also be accompanied by one or more link control frames for acknowledgement

    • FC-2 provides the segmentation and reassembly that supports the transmission of sequences as well as error control

    • Errors in a frame that belongs to a sequence causes the retransmission of that whole sequence (and any others transmitted after it – go back N ARQ)

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel frames sequences and exchanges continued2

Fibre ChannelFrames, sequences, and exchanges (continued)

  • Exchanges

    • Exchanges are mechanisms for organizing multiple sequences into a higher-level construct to allow easier interfacing to applications

    • Examples of exchanges are SCSI disk operations like a read or write

    • Can involve either a unidirectional or bi-directional transfer of sequences

    • Within a given exchange, only a single sequence can be active (though sequences from different exchanges can be simultaneously active)

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel frames sequences and exchanges continued3

Fibre ChannelFrames, sequences, and exchanges (continued)

  • Protocols

    • An exchange is tied to a protocol that provides a specific service for higher levels

    • Some common protocols that may be used by any higher application:

      • Fabric Login: executed upon initialization of an N_Port, requires the exchange of the N_Port address, classes of service supported, and flow-control parameters

      • N_Port Login: the exchange of service parameters between a pair of N_Ports before data exchange (buffer space, service classes supported, etc.)

      • N_Port Logout: the termination of a connection between a pair of N_Ports

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel framing classes of service4

Two levels of credit are in use with Class 1 & 2 services -- end-to-end and node-to-switch

Class 4 may have the same flow control as Classes 1 and 2; can’t find a good answer because most current equipment only supports class 2 & 3

Fibre ChannelFraming & Classes of Service

  • Flow Control

    • Fibre Channel provides a sophisticated set of flow control mechanisms at two ‘levels’: end-to-end and buffer-to-buffer

    • The key to the FC flow control mechanisms is the concept of credit: credit is negotiated at login and denotes the number of unacknowledged frames allowed at any time

    • End-to-End Flow Control

      • This type of flow control paces the flow of frames between N_Ports

      • Requires acknowledgements to operate, so end-to-end flow control can be used only with Class 1 and Class 2 services

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel flow control continued

Fibre ChannelFlow Control (continued)

  • End-to-End Flow Control

    • Three types of acknowledgements are possible in a Class 1 or Class 2 service

      • ACK_1: acknowledges one data frame & decrements the credit count by 1

      • ACK_N: acknowledges N data frames & decrements the credit count by N

      • ACK_0: acknowledges a whole sequence, decrementing the credit count by the number of frames in the sequence

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel flow control continued1

Fibre ChannelFlow Control (continued)

  • End-to-End Flow Control (continued)

    • Acknowledgement types cannot be mixed; if ACK_1 is initially used for a Class 1 connection than it must be used for the duration of the connection

    • Busy and Reject control frames are used for flow control

      • The F_BSY frame indicates the fabric is busy and cannot deliver a frame

      • The P_BSY frame indicates the destination port is busy and cannot accept a frame; the sender will try a predefined number of times to retransmit the frame

      • With the Reject (F_RJT and P_RJT) frames, delivery of the data frame is being denied (for some reason other than congestion)

      • When a frame belonging to a sequence is rejected the whole sequence must be retransmitted

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel flow control continued2

Fibre ChannelFlow Control (continued)

  • Buffer-to-buffer Flow Control

    • This is flow control across a pair of ports connected by a point-to-point link, assuring that buffers are available in the ports at either end of the link

    • This mechanism is also applicable to all classes of service (including Class 3 datagram service)

    • A single type of control signal, the R_RDY frame, is used for buffer-to-buffer flow control

      • As a data frame is transmitted across the link, the sender increments its credit count for the link

      • At the receiving port the data frame is buffered as received

      • As soon as the data frame is switched to another port’s buffer on the switch, the receiving port sends back the R_RDY frame to the sending port

      • When the sending port receives the R_RDY frame it decrements the credit count, opening its send window by one frame

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel framing classes of service5

Fibre ChannelFraming & Classes of Service

  • Frame Format [Figure 9.10]

    • The Fibre Channel Frame contains five general fields:

      • Start Delimiter

      • Frame Header

      • Data

      • Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC)

      • End Delimiter

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel framing classes of service6

Fibre ChannelFraming & Classes of Service

  • Frame Format - Start of Frame Delimiter

    • The start of Frame Delimiter includes a four byte set of non-data symbols denoting the start of a frame and allowing synchronization

    • The SOF delimiter comes in several varieties, each of which will specify the frame’s type and class of service

    • Examples are SOF Class 1 connection (SOFc1), SOF normal (for data frames), and SOF fabric (for control frames in the fabric)

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel framing classes of service7

Fibre ChannelFraming & Classes of Service

  • Frame Format - FC- 2 Frame Header

    • Contains the control data required at this level; consists of the following fields:

      • Routing control: contains two subfields, one that denotes the type of frame (device data, link control, etc.) and the type of data within the frame

      • Destination Identifier: destination N_Port or F_Port

        • FC uses two levels of addressing: a globally unique identifier (world wide port/node names) & a lower level port identifier

          • World wide/port name is used by higher layers and for network management

          • Port identifier is the 3-byte that is used for frame routing that consists of three parts: domain, area, and port

        • The hierarchical addressing structure facilitates routing and management of the fabric

        • A mechanism for mapping between the two addresses is necessary

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel framing classes of service8

Fibre ChannelFraming & Classes of Service

  • Frame Format - FC- 2 Frame Header

    • Contains the control data required at this level; consists of the following fields:

      • Source Identifier: source N_Port or F_Port

      • Type: if the routing control field specifies an FC-4 frame, then this field specifies the payload protocol (SCSI, IP, etc.)

        • This field and the Route control field allow the destination N_Port to deliver the data to the correct higher layer ‘user’

      • Frame control: contains control information relating to frame content

        • Is frame a retransmission? Is frame part of a sequence?

      • Sequence ID: unique identifier for a sequence used for all frames belonging to it

      • Data Field control: specifies which, if any, of four optional headers are present

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel framing classes of service9

Fibre ChannelFraming & Classes of Service

  • Frame Format - Frame Header (continued)

    • Contains the control data required at this level; consists of the following fields:

      • Sequence count: A unique number assigned sequentially to each frame in a sequence (for flow control and proper reassembly of frames within a sequence)

      • Originator Exchange Identifier: a unique identifier assigned to the higher layer initiator of an exchange

      • Responder Exchange Identifier: a unique identifier assigned to the higher layer destination of an exchange

      • Parameter: used in different ways for link control and data frames

        • Link control frames carry information specific to the control function in this field

        • Data frames may carry an address meaningful to the upper layer protocol

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel framing classes of service10

Fibre ChannelFraming & Classes of Service

  • Frame Format - Data Field

    • Contains user data in a multiple of four bytes chunks up to a maximum of 2112 bytes

    • Can also include one or more optional headers whose presence is denoted in the Data Field control field:

      • Expiration Security optional header: can carry an expiration date for the frame and well as other security data over and above the FC-PH standard

      • Optional Network Header: may be used by a bridge or gateway node interfacing to an external network to allow tunneling (includes 8 bit source and destination network addresses)

      • Optional Association Header: may help specify an upper layer process (or group of processes) associated with an exchange

      • Optional Device Header: if used the format is specified by the upper layer protocol used with the frame

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel framing classes of service11

Fibre ChannelFraming & Classes of Service

  • Frame Format - CRC & End Delimeter

    • CRC field: the error detection algorithm is the same 32 bit CRC used with FDDI and IEEE 802

    • End of Frame Delimiter

      • A four byte field denoting the end of the frame

      • The EOF field may be modified by a switch in the fabric if it finds an error in the frame or some other condition that invalidates the frame

      • There are three different EOF delimiters for valid frames:

        • EOFt denotes the end of a valid sequence

        • EOFdt is used with Class 1 service to indicate that the frame is the last frame on the logical connection (i.e. – the connection is being terminated)

        • EOFn is used to denote successful transmission of frames not covered by the first two

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Fibre channel examples of equipment

Fibre ChannelExamples of Equipment

  • Fibre Channel Equipment Manufacturers

    • High-end (“Director-Class”) Switches

      • Brocade Silkworm 2400 (http://www.brocade.com/products/directors/silkworm_24000/index.jsp)

      • McData Intrepid 6140 (http://www.mcdata.com/products/hardware/director/6140.html)

    • Low-end (“Edge”) Switches

      • EMC DS-16B3(http://www.emc.com/pdf/products/connectrix/connectrix_DS_16B2.pdf)

      • Cisco MDS 9120 (http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps5993/index.html)

    • Host-Bus Adapters (HBA)

      • HP Storageworks FCA-2408 2Gbps PCI-X (http://h18006.www1.hp.com/products/storageworks/fca2408/index.html)

      • Qlogic QLA2200L 1Gbps PCI (http://www.qlogic.com/support/product_resources.asp?id=118)

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


Ieee 802 3 family of lan protocols homework reading

IEEE 802.3 Family of LAN ProtocolsHomework & Reading

  • Homework #4 - Due in four weeks (3/22)

    • The idea of using Ethernet as a service provider technology is very attractive, but it lacks much of the functionality needed in that environment. Research a technology called Resilient Packet Ring (RPR) and write 1-1.5 pages on what its goals are and what functionality it provides.

    • Fibre Channel continues to evolve as a networking technology: research and write 1-1.5 pages on two different enhancements are currently being developed (e.g. – higher speeds, new higher layer mappings, etc.)

    • Redo OPNet Lab #1 using a 16-Mbps Token Ring instead of ethernet; answer all questions except #4.

  • Reading

    • This week’s material: Stallings chapters 8 and 9

    • Next week: SONET, ATM, & ATM LANs (chapter 11)

Class #5: Token Ring LANs & Fibre Channel


  • Login