What makes you you
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What Makes You…You?. DNA!. HISTORY. 1940’s – Hershey and Chase – concluded that DNA was the genetic material. 1953 – Cambridge University – Great Britain James Watson – American scientist and Francis Crick – British scientist – developed a model of DNA. 1962 – Nobel Prize. IMPORTANCE OF DNA.

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What Makes You…You?

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What makes you you

What Makes You…You?

DNA!


History

HISTORY

  • 1940’s – Hershey and Chase – concluded that DNA was the genetic material.

  • 1953 – Cambridge University – Great Britain

  • James Watson – American scientist and Francis Crick – British scientist – developed a model of DNA.

  • 1962 – Nobel Prize


Importance of dna

IMPORTANCE OF DNA

  • Provides all the instructions that:

    1. make you different from other species

    2. make you different within your species

  • Ensures the transmission of traits from one generation to the next.

  • Provides the template for protein manufacture.


Sides

SIDES

  • Alternating sugar and phosphate molecules

  • Sugar = Deoxyribose

  • Held together by bonds


Bases

BASES

  • 4 DNA nitrogen bases

  • Adenine = A

  • Thymine = T

  • Cytosine = C

  • Guanine = G


Middle rungs of the ladder

MIDDLE / RUNGS OF THE LADDER

  • composed of nitrogen bases

  • nitrogen bases attach to the sides by bonds at the sugar

  • nitrogen bases held together by hydrogen bonds


Overall structure

OVERALL STRUCTURE

CODON GROUP – any group of 3 nitrogen bases in a row.

NUCLEOTIDE – basic subunit of DNA. Composed of sugar, phosphate, and nitrogen base.


Base pairing rules

BASE PAIRING RULES

  • A – T

  • T – A

  • G – C

  • C – G

    GCAT………CGAT


Making complementary strands of dna

MAKING COMPLEMENTARY STRANDS OF DNA

Given:

A C T G C G T T A G C A

T G A C G C A A T C G T

Make the complementary strand of DNA


What makes you you

A

C

C

G

T

A

T

C

G

T

G

G

C

A

T

A

G

C

Let’s Try Another One!

Given:


Dna replication

DNA REPLICATION

  • The process in which DNA is replicated (copied/duplicated)

  • Replication occurs at the end of Interphase I.

  • Ensures that each daughter cell gets the correct number of chromosomes necessary for that cell to be what it’s supposed to be (skin cell, muscle cell, nerve cell, sperm cell, egg cell (ovum), etc.


Dna replication1

MITOSIS

DNA REPLICATION

A

T

nterphase 1

C

G

G

C

POLYMERASE


What makes you you

A

T

A

T

C

G

C

G

G

C

G

C


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