Multicore for avionics certification issue
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Multicore For Avionics Certification Issue. 2013 – 03 – 22. Context 1/2. This presentation is based on the final report that concludes the MULCORS project contracted with EASA.

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Multicore for avionics certification issue

Multicore For AvionicsCertification Issue

2013 – 03 – 22


Context 1 2

Context 1/2

  • This presentation is based on the final report that concludes the MULCORS project contracted with EASA.

  • The reports provides the main outputs, recommendations and conclusions per EASA Specifications attached to the Invitation to Tender EASA.2011.OP.30.

  • Access to MULCORS report

  • https://www.easa.europa.eu/safety-and-research/research-projects/large-aeroplanes.php


Context 2 2

Context 2/2

  • context

    • Provide a survey of Multi-core processors market availability

    • Define multi-core processors assessment & selection criteria

    • Perform investigations on a representative multi-core processor

    • Identify mitigation means, design and usage rules & limitations

    • Suggest recommendations for multi-core processor introduction

    • Suggest complementary or modification to EASA guidance

  • Background

    • Digital Embedded Aircraft Systems

    • Use of COTS processors in Embedded Aircraft Equipment

    • Use of Multi-Core in Embedded Military Aircraft Equipment


Agenda

AGENDA

  • Multi-core:

    • Introduction

    • Problems to Solve

    • Regarding certification

    • Software Aspects

    • Failure Mitigation Means & COTS Relative Features

  • Conclusion


Multi core

Introduction

Multi-core


Multi core introduction

Multi-Core: Introduction

  • Multi-Core processor Architecture: Unified Memory Access

    • Multi-core processors architecture is organized around one memory shared between all cores

    • Architecture requiring arbitration management on one hand and integrity mechanisms on the other hand to manage communication between cores and synchronization if required

    • In multi-core processors we need to take care about howCache Memory Coherency is assumed


Multi core introduction1

Multi-Core: Introduction

  • Multi-Core processor Architecture: Distributed Architecture

    • Each core has the use of a dedicated memory with or without dedicated cache depending on the processor architecture

    • Memory Cache Management is simplified and occurs in the same way as in a single core processor (separate cache and memory are dedicated to each core).


Multi core introduction2

Multi-Core: Introduction

  • Multi-Core processor Architecture: Single Address space, Distributed Memory

    • Cores have their own cache, they can also have dedicated memory but they can have access to other core memories using the bus or the Network

    • In some multi-core architecture, the cluster bus is also part of the global network. In this variant of architecture, the bandwidth is at least dimensioned to sustain all the transfers in a cluster without causing perturbation to the others


Multi core introduction3

Multi-Core: Introduction

Airb. SW

Airb. SW

Airb. SW

  • Intended Function

    • HW adaptation Layer (BSP)

    • Hypervisor layer (when required)

    • Operating System

    • Drivers

    • Airborne Software

Drivers

Drivers

Drivers

O.S.

O.S.

O.S.

Hypervisor

BSP

BSP

BSP

Core

Core

Core

Core

Core

Core

Cache

Cache

Cache

Cache

Cache

Cache

External Bus

External Network

BUS

BUS

Register

Register

Register

Register

EXT MEMORY

EXT MEMORY

INTERCONNECT

Register

Register

Register

Register


Multi core1

Problems to Solve

Multi-core


Multi core introduction4

Multi-Core: Introduction

  • What is a multicore processor?

    • A multicore processor can be characterized by N (N ≥ 2) processing cores + a set of shared resources (Memories, PCIe, Ethernet, Cache, Registers, etc.)

    • Two types of processors can be found

      • The ones where interconnect between cores is based on an arbitrated bus

      • The ones where interconnect between cores is based on a network

    • Multicore management can be summarize to shared resources conflicts management (when SW is in DAL_A, DAL_B or DAL_C)


Multi core introduction5

Multi-Core: Introduction

  • Access conflits

    • To interconnect between cores

      • If InterConnect = bus  Access arbitration is done at this level

      • If InterConnect = network  Access arbitration depend of numbers of authorized parallel routes (example : Memories accesses, Bus accesses, Networks accesses, etc.)

Conflicts

Management

Si InterConnect = BUS

Si InterConnect = Réseau

Conflicts

Management

Conflicts

Management

Conflicts

Management

Conflicts

Management


Multi core introduction6

Multi-Core: Introduction

  • Accesses conflicts

    • To external Memories

      • If InterConnect= bus  Accesses arbitration has been realized at InterConnect level

      • If InterConnect= network  Accesses arbitration are done at Memory Controller level

        • In case of more than one Memory Controller, arbitration can be simplified

Gestion des conflits

Si InterConnect = Réseau

Si InterConnect = BUS

Si InterConnect = Réseau

Gestion des conflits

Gestion des conflits

Gestion des conflits


Multi core introduction7

Multi-Core: Introduction

  • Accesses conflicts

    • Accesses to PCI / PCIe bus or ETHERNET Network

      • If InterConnect= bus  Accesses arbitration has been realized at InterConnect level

      • If InterConnect= network  Accesses arbitration is done at each controller level: PCI / PCIe bus one or Ethernet network one

        • Depending of numbers of Accesses Controller, arbitration can be simplified (ex : for two accesses controller bus and network  2 simultaneous accesses can be sustained).

Gestion des conflits

Si InterConnect = BUS

Si InterConnect = Réseau

Gestion des conflits

Gestion des conflits


Multi core introduction8

Multi-Core: Introduction

  • Determinism in embedded aircraft systems

    • Abstract notion partially described in DO-297

    • Definition based on

      • Execution Integrity

        • “Demonstrate that the Embedded Aircraft System mode during non-faulty software execution remains nominal or degraded into an acceptable state”

        • Accumulate sufficient knowledge on the processor’s internal mechanisms.

      • WCET analysis

      • Platform Usage Domain

        • More or Less difficult to analysis regarding the Airborne Software knowledge.

      • Robust Partitioning (not only for IMA system)

        • Ensure by HW mechanism

        • Ensure by Operating System

        • Ensure at Airborne Software


Multi core introduction9

Multi-Core: Introduction

  • Multicore COTS Processors

    • Conflicts Management

      • Spatial Management: how to manage accesses to be sure that one core can’t access to a space reserved for another core.

      • Temporal Management:

        • How to manage accesses done by one core to all shared resources (Memories, I/O, etc.) to be sure that accesses can be limited in time whatever activities of other core are (normal or abnormal).

        • Upper bound will be used for WCET computation

      • For Memory Accesses

        • Spatial Management is done by MMU and IOMMU (when existing)

        • Temporal Management is more complex linked to interconnect (transaction management), Memory Controller and Memory (transaction realization).

    • Operating System

      • Architecture Choice regarding Industry needs

        • Computer Number Reduction with low impact on legacy application AMP

        • Application Performance Improvement  SMP


Multi core2

Processor Selection

Multi-core


Processor selection selection criteria

Processor Selection: Selection Criteria

  • Selection criteria regarding the manufacturer situation

  • Manufacturer has experience in the avionic domain

  • Manufacturer is involved in the certification process

  • Manufacturer publishes specific communications

  • Manufacturer has a sufficient life expectancy

  • Manufacturer ensures a long term support

    • Selection criteria regarding the Manufacturer openness regarding design and tests information

  • Design information on a COTS processor is mandatory to certify an avionic platform

    • Strong impact on the performance of the chip.

    • Il some manufacturers may not agreeto communicate specific design information required to ensure determinism it is relevant to favor manufacturers who agree.

  • Moreover, for an avionic component, it is necessary to perform specific robustness tests, such as a SEE (Single Event Effect) or SER


  • Processor selection selection criteria1

    Processor Selection: Selection Criteria

    • Focus on Architecture: Virtual Memory Management

  • Virtual memory service (Memory Management Unit).

    • Translating virtual addresses into physical addresses,

    • Verifying that the requesting software has the sufficient access rights.

    • Multicore platforms VMM can be located at core, at processor or at both levels.

  • MMU components:

    • Addresses translator and access rightschecker.

    • Storage device, Translation Look aside Buffers (TLB) to save locally the address translation rules.

  • Virtual memory is defined with pages frames (size & offset).

    • Focus on Architecture: Private cache & Scratchpad

  • Use of hierarchical memory (caches and scratchpads) improves the performance of software.

    • Scratchpad usually viewed as a cache with its management implemented by software.

    • In a general way, timing variability when accessing private caches and scratchpads is considered to be bounded. Content prediction depends on the cache replacement policy.


  • Processor selection selection criteria2

    Processor Selection: Selection Criteria

    • Focus on HW assists for Debug & Monitoring

  • COTS processors provide debug mechanisms that enable breakpoint insertion, single step execution

  • Usual way to debug bare metal software is to use the JTAG interface.

  • On top of an operating system, debuggers such as GDB can be used.


  • Multi core3

    Regarding Certification

    Multi-core


    Multi core processor features interconnect

    Multi-Core Processor features: INTERCONNECT

    • Interconnect

      • Overview

        • Interconnect, the first shared resource between cores.

        • Interleaves the concurrent transactions sent by the cores to the shared resources like caches, memories and I/O mapped in the address space.

        • Its architecture has a strong impact on determinism and ensuring partitioning insurance, and on the complexity of worst case analyses.

        • Interconnect usually implements the following services:

          • Arbitration of incoming requests. This stage depends on several parameters:

            • Arbitration rules

            • Arbiter internal logic

            • Network topology

          • Allocation of the physical destination devices when they are duplicated.

            • For example when there is more than one MEMORY controllers.

          • Allocation of a path to the destination.

            • When several paths exist between the source and the destination (depends on routing rules).

          • Support for atomic operations, hardware locking mechanisms

          • Snooping mechanisms for cache coherency

          • Inter Processors Interruptions (IPI) for inter-core communications


    Multi core processor features shared cache

    Multi-Core Processor features: SHARED CACHE

    • Shared cache

      • Use of a shared cache in Embedded Aircraft Systems requires a solution to the following problems:

        • Shared cache content prediction. WCET calculability and robust partitioning requirements.

        • Cache content integrity. Take care of SEU/MBU.

        • Concurrent accesses impact. Potential restrictions on concurrent accesses to shared cache have to appear in the Interconnect Usage Domain in the same way as concurrent accesses to shared memory.

      • Cache organizations

        • Fully associative: Each memory row may be stored anywhere in the cache.

        • N-way set associative cache: Each memory row may be stored in any way of some specific sets of cache lines.

        • Direct mapped cache: Each memory row may be stored in a single cache line.

      • Classic replacement policies are:

        • Least Recently Used

        • Pseudo Least Recently Used:

        • Most Recently Used

        • First In First Out

        • Random


    Multi core processor features impact on determinism

    Multi-Core Processor features: impact on Determinism

    • Cache coherency mechanism

      • Required in architecture that integrates several storage devices hosting one same data.

      • Two families of coherency protocols:

        • Invalidate protocols:

          • Accessed cache line is marked as invalidated in all locations.

          • Further accesses will miss and require a load to the main memory.

          • Class of protocols easier to implement and offers better performances.

        • Update protocols:

          • Accessed cache line is updated.

          • Update request is broadcasted to all nodes: the ones containing the cache line are automatically updated.

          • Benefit: cache access will always hit without requesting the interconnect, thus traffic on the interconnect may be easier to control.


    Multi core processor features shared services

    Multi-Core Processor features: SHARED SERVICES

    • Shared services

      • Airborne Embedded Equipment is in charge of providing shared services among the cores.

      • Shared services:

        • Interrupts generation and routing to cores

        • Core and processor clock configurations

        • Timer configurations

        • Watchdog configurations

        • Power supply and reset

        • Support for atomic operations


    Multi core processor features cores

    Multi-Core Processor features: CORES

    • cores

      • The cores support the execution of multiple software instances in parallel.

      • They interact within two mechanisms:

        • Inter-core interrupts

        • Shared memory

      • In the Embedded Aircraft Systems context, the use of inter-core interrupts (point-to-point or broadcast) might be the same as any external interrupt. It is acceptable under some conditions including (but not restricted to):

        • As a protection mechanism (a core can interrupt another core if it detects a faulty execution inside it)

        • When the destination core is actively waiting for being interrupted.

      • Memory mapping defined in the Memory Management Unit.

        • Multi-core platforms embed one MMU per core. T

        • Memory mapping definition is distributed among the cores.

        •  This raises the feature of coherency maintenance between all MMU.

      • A non-coherent configuration may weaken Robust Partitioning.


    Multi core processor features peripherals

    Multi-Core Processor features: PERIPHERALS

    • Peripherals: main memory and I/O’s

      • Sharing the main memory means sharing the physical storage resources and the memory controllers.

        • Storage resource can be partitioned when necessary: (space partitioning).

        • Sharing accesses to the memory controllers may in some cases increase the timing variability of a transaction with a factor higher than the number of accessing masters.

      • Shared I/O features are similar to shared services configuration:

        • Access simultaneously read and/or write buffers.

          • Classic rules of time and space partitioning can apply: when it is not possible ensure that concurrent accesses will occur in disjoint time windows.

        • Initiate specific protocols operations: uninterrupted access is required during the protocol execution to be able to fulfill correctly the concerned protocol.

        • Like shared services, concurrent accesses to shared I/O may occur simultaneously from different cores.

          • Some I/O are accessed according to a protocol, others are accessed from a read and/or write buffer  Atomic access patterns have to be ensured.


    Multi core4

    Software Aspects

    Multi-core


    Multitasks scheduling features

    Multitasks scheduling features

    • Classic approach for a multitasked system is the hierarchical model based on processes (or partition) and threads

      • In ARINC 653, equivalent components are partitions and processes).

        • Processes (or partitions) are executed from isolated memory areas.

        • Inside a process, one or more threads are executed in the same address space.  

    • Parallel programming models include two kinds of tasks: periodic and sporadic.

    • Processes and threads activation depends on a scheduling algorithm.

    • For an Embedded Aircraft Systems system, a scheduling algorithm shall verify the following properties:

      • Feasibility:

      • Predictability:

        • Critical property ensuring that a set of tasks will meet its deadline.

    • Pre-emptiveand priority based scheduling algorithms are preferred for single-core processors


    Airborne software migration from single core to multi core

    Airborne Software migration from single-core to multi-core

    • Porting multitasked Airborne Software from a single-core to a multi-core platform, required:

      • Airborne Software execution will still be correct

      • Worst Case Execution Time will be calculated for each task or process.

    • Multitasked airborne software may not be efficiently executed on a multi-core platform if its tasks have dependencies requiring a specific execution order.

    • Care has to be taken if the Airborne Software is implemented within a cooperative tasks model.

      • Such an implementation usually removes protections in critical sections accesses.

      • In multi-core execution, critical section might be executed in parallel by different tasks, resulting in an erroneous execution critical section requires semaphore protection


    Partitioned system features

    Partitioned system features

    • Components evolution to take benefit of multi-core platforms

    • The most “flexible” component is the integration software layer. Possible designs:

      • A single OS instance shared among all the cores

      • A private OS instance per core

      • A virtualization layer hosting several operating systems in dedicated virtual machines.

    • Partition Deployment

      • One partition is activated on all cores and has an exclusive access to platform resources

      • Symmetrical Multi-processing (SMP).

      • Each partition are activated on one core with true parallelism between partitions

        Asymmetrical Multi-processing (AMP).


    Operating system global view

    Operating System global view

    From Single Core to Multi-Core in AMP (Asymmetric multi-processing)

    APP5

    APP2

    APP5

    APP3

    APP4

    APP1

    T1

    T1

    T1

    T1

    T1

    T1

    Space & Time Partitionning

    Space & Time Partitionning

    Space & Time Partitionning

    T2

    T2

    T2

    T2

    T2

    T2

    T3

    T3

    T3

    T3

    T3

    T3

    T4

    T4

    T4

    T5

    Operating System

    Operating System

    Operating System

    CORE

    CORE

    CORE

    T4

    T5

    BRIDGE

    INTERCONNECT

    Solve

    Conflict

    Memory Controller

    I/O

    Controller

    Memory Controller

    I/O

    Controller

    BUS / Network

    Interface

    BUS / Network

    Interface

    Memory Controller

    This is a first step represented by this two cores processor example, for more than two cores (or less than two Memory Controller) we have to manage the conflicts to the Memory Controller.


    Operating system global view1

    Operating System global view

    Space & Time Partitionning

    From Single Core to Multi-Core in SMP (Symmetric multi-processing)

    APP2

    APP3

    APP1

    APP1

    T1

    T1

    T1

    T1

    Space & Time Partitionning

    T2

    T2

    T2

    T2

    T3

    T3

    T3

    T3

    T4

    T4

    T5

    T4

    Operating System

    Operating System

    CORE

    CORE

    CORE

    BRIDGE

    INTERCONNECT

    Solve

    Conflict

    Memory Controller

    I/O

    Controller

    Memory Controller

    I/O

    Controller

    BUS / Network

    Interface

    BUS / Network

    Interface

    Memory Controller

    This is a first step represented by this two cores processor example, for more than two cores (or less than two Memory Controller) we have to manage the conflicts to the Memory Controller.


    Current mono core concept

    T4

    T4

    T3

    T3

    T3

    T2

    T2

    T2

    T1

    T1

    T1

    T1

    T1

    Current mono-core concept

    Space & Time Partitionning

    APP2

    APP3

    APP1

    T1

    T1

    T1

    T2

    T2

    T2

    T3

    T3

    T3

    T4

    T4

    Operating System

    T5

    CORE

    BRIDGE

    Memory Controller

    I/O

    Controller

    BUS / Network

    Interface

    Thread / Process

    T5

    T4

    Appli. 1

    T

    OS

    Core

    T3

    Appli. 2

    T

    T2

    Appli. 3

    T

    T1

    T1

    idle

    time

    Partition 1

    Partition 2

    Partition 3

    Partition 4


    Multicore for avionics certification issue

    Space & Time Partitionning

    Space & Time Partitionning

    AMP

    APP5

    APP4

    APP5

    APP3

    APP1

    APP2

    T1

    T1

    T1

    T2

    T1

    T1

    T1

    T2

    T2

    T2

    T2

    T3

    T2

    T3

    T3

    T3

    T4

    T4

    T3

    T3

    T4

    T5

    When AMP mode is selected, the Use of Hypervisor is recommended to master the behavior of the Interconnect Usage Domain

    Operating System

    Operating System

    CORE

    CORE

    INTERCONNECT

    Memory Controller

    I/O

    Controller

    BUS / Network

    Interface

    Memory Controller

    Thread / Process

    T5

    T4

    T4

    Core 1

    OS 2

    T3

    T3

    T3

    T

    Appli. 1

    T3

    T2

    T2

    T2

    T2

    T2

    T

    Appli.2

    T1

    T1

    T1

    T1

    T1

    T1

    T

    Appli 3

    Partition 2.4

    T

    Partition 1.1

    Partition 2.2

    Appli 4

    Partition 2.3

    T4

    T

    Appli 5

    OS 1

    Core 2

    T3

    T3

    T3

    T3

    T3

    T3

    T

    Appli 6

    T2

    T2

    T2

    T2

    T

    Appli 7

    T1

    T1

    T1

    T1

    T1

    T1

    T1

    idle

    time

    Partition 1.1

    Partition 1.2

    Partition 1.3

    Partition 1.4


    Multicore for avionics certification issue

    Space & Time Partitionning

    T2

    T4

    T3

    T1

    T1

    SMP

    APP1

    APP2

    APP3

    T2

    T1

    T1

    T3

    T3

    T4

    When SMP mode is selected, Processes, Threads or Tasks should be allocated to cores statically to achieve determinism

    T2

    T2

    T4

    T3

    T1

    T5

    Operating System

    CORE

    CORE

    INTERCONNECT

    Memory Controller

    I/O

    Controller

    BUS / Network

    Interface

    Memory Controller

    Core 2

    Thread / Process

    T2

    T2

    T2

    OS

    T

    Appli. 1

    T

    Appli. 2

    T5

    T

    Appli. 3

    T4

    T4

    Core 1

    T3

    T3

    idle

    T1

    T1

    T1

    T1

    T1

    T3

    time

    Partition 1

    Partition 2

    Partition 3

    Partition 4


    Multi core5

    Failure Mitigation Means & COTS Relative Features

    Multi-core


    Multi core failure mitigation

    Multi-Core: Failure Mitigation

    • FMEA and/or FFPA for a single or a multi-core processor is not achievable at processor level

      • Mitigation has to be provided, by the equipment provider, at board level where this processor is used

    • Software Error Rate  SEE (Single Event Effect)

      • Measurements on SER are usually performed by the manufacturers on their own

    • Deep Sub Micronics

      • DSM has impact of long term reliability


    Multicore for avionics certification issue

    An example of Stress Tests

    Stress test have been kept identical from generation to generation to be able to guarantee in the industrial grade a usable life compatible with Avionics Requirements


    Conclusion

    conclusion


    Conclusions

    Conclusions

    • Complexity of Multi-Core Processors has increased over the past few years, while the level of demonstration for design assurance should remain at least the same as- or better than for COTS without such increment in complexity.

    • A COTS component remains a COTS component (features proprietary data from the COTS manufacturer).

    • Approaches:

      • Access to additional data under agreements with the COTS manufacturer

      • And/or mitigation of potential COTS faults or errors at board or equipment level,  


    Conclusions1

    Conclusions

    • In this report we put emphasis on specific Multi-Core features linked to Shared Resource Accesses like Memory, Bus, Network, Internal Registers, Clock Management, etc.

    • These features are the main differences between single-core and multi-core devices that have to be managed

      • At Airborne Software Level

        • If Airborne Software behavior is well known and well managed, then by allocating Airborne Software applications to cores, we can demonstrate the non-interaction between cores.

        • The interconnect behavior shall be well known and well managed

      • At Hypervisor level

        • In this configuration, theHypervisor is used to constraint the behavior of the interconnect. These constraints reduce theglobal performance of the multi-core processor but offer determinism and so the global behavior can be demonstrated.


    Complementary information

    Complementary information


    Complementary information1

    Complementary information

    • Multi-core Processor Usage Domain

    • Definition, Validation and Verification of a Usage Domain (UD) for such highly complex COTS Multi-Core processors is required.

    • This approach is already known and offered by existing certification guidance for Complex and Highly Complex COTS.

    • One recommendation would be to distinguish between the UD rules related to segregation constraints (e.g. segregation between cores), from the UD rules related to local limitations (within a single core).


    Complementary information2

    Complementary information

    • Significant features

    • Determining WCET, knowing the high variability of execution time, the following step by step approach can be one of the solution to ensure the temporal deterministic behavior of processors; such anapproach is also valid for multi-core processors:

      • Characterization of execution time jitters of the operating system services,

      • Determination of the Worst Case Execution Time (WCET) plus allowed margins,

      • Incorporated real-time monitoring of actual exec time versus allowed WCET,

      • Collect data for assessment of the processor + Airborne Software operating behavior,

      • Depending on the above assessment, establish additional rules or limitations,

      • Apply necessary modifications


    Complementary information3

    Complementary information

    • Robust partitioning

    • Mitigation to cater for the inherent complexity of multi-core processors via functional robustness at Airborne Software level is possible whenever the developer has allowed access to- and detailed knowledge of- the computing platform.

    • Defensive programming techniques can be used to compensate for potential misbehaviors. This possibility is not accessible for Software execution platforms where Airborne Software developers have only access to an allocated portion of the platform with strict rules and requirements to meet in order to allow adequate operation of the whole integrated system.

    • Multi-software architectures are now common, hence robust partitioning of Airborne Software must then be ensured. For example an essential feature is the execution time variations due to jittering on partition switching that should be minimized to allow time-deterministic behavior. Indeed, guidance is that temporal determinism shall be ensured knowing given criteria..


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