Machakos. A long History of Agricultural Development and Research
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Machakos. A long History of Agricultural Development and Research Louis N. Gachimbi National Agricultural Research Laboratories P.O.Box 14733, e-mail: [email protected] Nairobi.

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Machakos a long history of agricultural development and research louis n gachimbi national agricultural research lab

Machakos. A long History of Agricultural Development and Research

Louis N. Gachimbi

National Agricultural Research Laboratories

P.O.Box 14733, e-mail: [email protected]

Nairobi.

Trade off Analysis: An operational and accepted tool for policy analysis workshop, Intercontinental Hotel, Nairobi June 20-21, 2005

  • Kenya Agricultural Research Institute


Characteristics of machakos district

Characteristics of Machakos District

Main issues: population pressure, Land degradation due to steep slopes, persist drought, low farm incomes, low farm productivity, low Nitrogen and Phosphorous levels.

  • Kenya Agricultural Research Institute


History of agricultural development initiatives

History of Agricultural Development Initiatives

  • Before settler occupation:

    - Land controlled by clans, tribes or families

  • With colonial rule:

    - Market economy

    -Increased population: livestock and human leading to land degradation

  • 1945 – African Resettlement Board (ARB) which was latter replaced by African Land Development Board (ALDEV)

  • Kenya Agricultural Research Institute


Machakos a long history of agricultural development and research louis n gachimbi national agricultural research lab

Activities

(a) Pasture improvement, soil and water conservation, livestock water development, tsetse fly eradication.

(b) Modification of agro pastoralists perceptions and actions: grazing controls, ranching schemes, land tenure privatization.

(c) Improvement of livestock systems through breeding, disease control and marketing (ranches)

1970s to date: Disaster mitigation:

  • Ranching phase (1970s-1980s)- ranches heavy capital investment.

  • Range/livestock project (ASAL): development of water, roads and marketing infrastructure.

  • Kenya Agricultural Research Institute


Machakos a long history of agricultural development and research louis n gachimbi national agricultural research lab

  • Integrated natural resource management

    - Involves all stakeholders (move from top down heavy

    capital intensive to smaller less capital intensive).

    - Soil and water conservation

    - Agro forestry

    - Crop and livestock improvement

  • Wildlife

  • Large scale dairy/beef ranching

  • Small scale farming: Maize/beans/cowpeas/fruit trees.

  • Small scale irrigation schemes (Matuu, Kibwezi)

  • Kenya Agricultural Research Institute


Research conducted for the past 10 years

Research conducted for the past 10 years

  • Others

  • Livestock improvements trails: Boran/zebu, disease control

  • Pasture improvement: water harvesting trails for pasture/fodder production, bush clearing etc.

  • Soil fertility: Nitrogen (N), Phosphorous (P) and Manure (FYM) trials, farm nutrient balances.

  • Kenya Agricultural Research Institute


Machakos a long history of agricultural development and research louis n gachimbi national agricultural research lab

Farming systems in Machakos (including Makueni)

  • Rainfed systems in high population density areas (Central Division, Kangundo, Mwala, Kasikeu): Rainfed systems in low population density areas (Kibwezi, Yatta):

  • Irrigated systems (Matuu and Kibwezi)

  • Kenya Agricultural Research Institute


Machakos a long history of agricultural development and research louis n gachimbi national agricultural research lab

Major characteristics of the farming systems in selected sites

* Machakos and Makueni are the current administrative boundaries.

  • Kenya Agricultural Research Institute


Land use patterns in selected sites

Land use patterns in selected sites:

  • Kenya Agricultural Research Institute


Average farm total nutrient balances kg ha for selected sites

Average farm total nutrient balances (kg/ha) for selected sites

  • Kenya Agricultural Research Institute


Economics

Economics

  • Kenya Agricultural Research Institute


Machakos a long history of agricultural development and research louis n gachimbi national agricultural research lab

Percentage of farms with observed nitrogen level (N, %)

No. of farms

N<0.05

(V. Low)

0.05<N<0.12

(Low)

0.12<N 0.25 (Moderate)

N>0.25

(Adequate)

Mean

Range

Matuu

28

0

89

11

0

0.10

0.07-0.15

Kasikeu

19

0

23

68

9

0.19

0.08-0.62

Kibwezi

17

8

76

8

8

0.12

0.04-0.61

Mwala

26

23

77

0

0

0.06

0.02-0.09

Average soil nitrogen levels in selected sites

  • Kenya Agricultural Research Institute


Average soil phosphorus olsen levels in selected sites

Percentage of farms with

observed phosphorus (P, ppm)

No. of Farms

P<20

(Deficient)

20<P<80

(Adequate)

P>80

(Excessive)

Mean

(g kg-1)

Range

(g kg-1)

Matuu

28

82

18

0

0.12

0.02 - 0.37

Mwala

Kasikeu

26

19

37

100

61

0

2

0

0.26

0.01

0.10-1.10

0.00 - 0.08

Kibwezi

17

100

0

0

0.04

0.02 - 0.11

Average soil phosphorus (Olsen) levels in selected sites

*Low levels of organic carbon due to high mineralisation rates

* Potassium is adequate in the soil for common crops

  • Kenya Agricultural Research Institute


Assessment of poverty levels based on family earnings per consumer unit per month

Assessment of Poverty levels based on family earnings per consumer unit per month

  • Kenya Agricultural Research Institute


Long term agricultural developments options in low rainfall areas

Long term agricultural developments options in low rainfall areas

Goal:

  • Multifunctional land use

  • Economic development of the region

  • Improved livelihoods of the population

  • Conservation/maintenance of resource base

  • Kenya Agricultural Research Institute


Machakos a long history of agricultural development and research louis n gachimbi national agricultural research lab

Measures:

Design of development plan for livestock-wildlife-tourist

industry

  • Feedlots for high intensity beef production

  • Manure processing facilities

  • Infrastructure: feed grains and processed manure transport, marketing, infrastructure

  • Improved animal health care

  • Localised food production with water harvesting, use of manure and rotation

  • Future threats:

    • Land subdivision

    • Slow adoption rates of technologies especially soil fertility options due to low returns

  • Kenya Agricultural Research Institute


Machakos a long history of agricultural development and research louis n gachimbi national agricultural research lab

Long term agricultural developments options in areas with relatively high rainfall (Mwala and Kasikeu)

  • Dairy cows

  • Cultivation of mono cultures of maize and grain legumes

  • Cultivation of forage legumes for supplementary feed

  • Efficient manure management

  • Mixed crop-livestock systems with market orientation for milk

  • Kenya Agricultural Research Institute


Machakos a long history of agricultural development and research louis n gachimbi national agricultural research lab

Measures:

  • Breeding and using improved cattle

  • Efficient recycling of crop residues, manure and organic waste and collection of waste/fallow vegetation for mulching/feed/composting

  • Kenya Agricultural Research Institute


Machakos a long history of agricultural development and research louis n gachimbi national agricultural research lab

Futurethreats

  • Slow nutrient depletion resulting in low yields and low efficiency of external inputs

  • High risks of drought and crop failures; threats of food insecurity and unsure livelihood

  • Low recycling efficiency of manure and crop residues

  • Competition for labour

  • Livestocknumbers

  • Kenya Agricultural Research Institute


Agricultural development options in irrigated systems

Agricultural development options in irrigated systems

Objectives:

  • Maintain and expand small scale irrigated production system

  • High intensity, high value commodities production centred for local and export market

  • Improvement of livelihood

    Measures:

  • Maintenance and management of small-scale irrigation system

  • Reduce transaction costs: market information, physical infrastructure, marketing channels, co-operatives, micro-finance

  • Kenya Agricultural Research Institute


Machakos a long history of agricultural development and research louis n gachimbi national agricultural research lab

Threats

  • Soil quality (salinization)

  • Water availability and competition

  • Marketing problems (reduce transaction costs)

  • Measures:

  • Development of skills for all links in chain (production, quality control, transport, marketing)

  • Establishment of effective production-marketing chain in public-private partnership

  • Kenya Agricultural Research Institute


Thank you

Thank You

  • Kenya Agricultural Research Institute


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