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第四章:化学与环境. 4.1 环境污染概述. 4.1.1 环境与环境问题 4.1.2 环境污染 4.1.3 全球十大环境问题 4.1.4 困扰中国的十大环境问题. 第四章 : 化学与环境. 4.1 环境污染概述. 4.1.1 环境与环境问题. 一、环境污染. 1. 环境.

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第四章:化学与环境

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3737096

4.1

4.1.1

4.1.2

4.1.3

4.1.4


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:

4.1

4.1.1

1.

4


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2.


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4-1 20


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30902.42327388010151520


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:

4.1

4.1.2

1


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2


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2002627


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(200462)


2006 5 19

2006519


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(20061030)


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1


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3

2

4

5


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:

4.1

4.1.3

20802090


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1

18801008

2

1%2.3%5.5%


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3

3000


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4

60%29%6004235033600900


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5

60%1001/380%


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6

27901000


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7

1980199015012%40--4000

8

30-702500400-700


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9

1950202199026320254030%20506560%

10


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:

4.1

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8WTO

9

10

4.1.3


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1

2

42%75%

3

10%


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4

5

504000

6


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2005


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7


8 wto

8WTO


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9


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2007724


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2007724


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10

12


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:

4.2.1

1012m3103

19441952


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100

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0

160 200 240 280 320

( K )

012km1250km5085km85800km800km90km5.21018kg505km7510km9030km

O,O2,O+, O2+, N2, NO+,e

N2,O2,NO+,O2+

N2,O2,O3

N2,O2,H2O,Ar,CO2


3737096

  • N278.084%0.004%

  • O220.948%0.002%

  • Ar0.934% 0.001%

  • Ne 1810-6

  • He 510-6

  • Kr 110-6

  • Xe 0.0810-6

  • CH4 210-6

  • H2 0.510-6

  • N2O 0.310-6

  • CO 0.510-30.210-6

    O3(10-6)

    NH3 410-6

    NO2 110-9

    SO2 110-9

    H2S 0.5510-9

    • H2O(10-6%)

    • CO232510-6

    78.0920.950.93CO2 0.030.1


    3737096

    :

    4.2.2

    .

    1.


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    2

    (SOx)(NOx)(COx)(CH)

    3


    3737096

    .

    APIAir Pollution Index4-34-4(PM10)


    3737096

    4-3


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    4-4


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    :

    4.2.3


    3737096

    1

    CO2

    CO2CH4CFCsN2OOH


    3737096


    3737096

    2

    8020755


    3737096

    3


    3737096


    3737096

    10.518%

    100

    1/3

    20


    3737096

    904.54

    3.5380


    3737096

    5020C30C

    1000.50C203.50C

    8082%10092%

    2005()379.1ppm(1ppm)2004377.1ppm0.53%


    3737096

    50


    3737096

    2007.8.3:14


    3737096

    20021125


    3737096

    20011228


    3737096


    3737096

    199712

    20052162010619905.2%20058131423080%


    3737096

    20061030


    3737096


    3737096

    2006114


    3737096

    2006114


    2002 7 18

    2002718


    2003 5 21 5860

    20035215860


    3737096

    • 2006


    3737096


    3737096


    3737096

    (2006)


    3737096


    3737096

    2006812


    3737096

    2006109

    4


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    3737096


    3737096

    1--.

    2--.

    3--.

    4--.

    5--.


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    6--


    3737096

    7--

    2004726


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    :

    4.2.4

    NONO21946()


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    3737096


    3737096

    • NO2 + h NO + O (<420nm)

    • O + O2 + M O3 + M

    • O3+ NO NO2 + O2

    • O + +

    • O3 + +

    • + +

    • + NO NO2 +

    • + NO2

    • +


    3737096


    3737096

    NOxCxHy

    NO2290-420nm


    3737096


    3737096

    :

    4.2.5

    1981,1%2%2%

    20751.530018007.5%25%4730%


    3737096

    Hello! The beautiful planet. This is earth...


    3737096

    O3240nmO2

    O2 O + O

    OO2O3:

    OO2M O3M

    200nm-300nmuv,:

    O3 OO2


    3737096

    1985


    3737096

    2000982000932830


    3737096

    • O3,

    • 20-25


    3737096

    • 197819871.2%-10.6%2%2085

    • 1981

  • 1%2%

  • 2%


  • 3737096

    20(NOx)CFCs,.

    1-11CCl3F23.8

    2-12CCl2F2-29.8

    3-13CClF3

    4-22CHClF2


    3737096

    203090150040150

    10

    25

    10000


    3737096

    O3 NO

    3-4%1992ClO


    3737096

    .

    1

    2

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    1.

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    2030


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    :

    4.2.6

    1852

    pH5.65;pH5.65; pH5.65


    3737096

    1SOxNOx


    3737096

    2

    SO2SO2SO2

    2SO2+O2 2SO3

    SO3+H2O H2SO4

    SO2+H2O H2SO3

    2H2SO3+O2 2H2SO4

    O3

    • NOO2NO2NO2

    • 2NO+O22NO2

    • 2NO2+H2OHNO3+HNO2


    3737096

    1


    3737096

    2

    976090%


    3737096

    3

    ,,?,()

    1956, , , 1 , , 0.4 ,

    35


    3737096

    pH5.6()

    19854120


    3737096

    196746

    1967121555046


    3737096

    4


    3737096

    ,,50,,4050

    157

    (198)70051624


    3737096

    ,,50,,4050(1932)(1986100)

    173003080


    3737096

    5

    6

    ,,

    1

    ,50%,

    701980,,

    19875019881,17,,320120


    3737096

    2

    50,,;1959,,,,60,,pH4.0,,,,


    3737096

    7

    180,(),,

    2199848pH4.452-3,,,:

    390,,


    3737096


    3737096

    :

    4.2.7

    2006727.97721.602007800

    2005340070006


    3737096

    10151


    3737096

    1

    150-200CnHmNOx(a)


    3737096


    3737096

    CO

    COHb

    CnHm

    CnHmNOX--


    3737096

    NOX

    NONO2NO29.4mg/m25PPm10

    PM2.5


    3737096

    2

    20054

    10103693


    3737096

    4.541015


    3737096

    2019752080


    3737096


    3737096


    3737096


    3737096

    1

    400

    -

    198519951015813

    90-95%

    80


    3737096

    2


    3737096

    3

    [CH3OC(CH3)3]


    3737096

    19721219961 l19852000

    199971909395970.005g/L2000

    231219936


    3737096


    3737096

    4

    1.62.789

    ,66,90

    .1116

    25

    2520


    3737096

    .

    2372503612

    5

    3


    3737096

    5

    20069736814334


    3737096

    20072210

    :50

    :

    3


    3737096

    1821?100

    207040

    100300mgkg100-1000mgkg


    4 2 8

    :

    4.2.8

    4.2

    1


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    5


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