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The Sleep and Dream Information Questionnaire-Revised. An introduction to the research on sleep and dreams. 1.  False.  Normal REM sleep is accompanied by muscle paralysis that makes acting out of dreams impossible. Sleepwalking actually occurs in sleep stages 3 and 4.

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the sleep and dream information questionnaire revised

The Sleep and Dream Information Questionnaire-Revised

An introduction to the research on sleep and dreams

slide3
1.  False.  Normal REM sleep is accompanied by muscle paralysis that makes acting out of dreams impossible. Sleepwalking actually occurs in sleep stages 3 and 4.
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2.  False. Night or sleep terrors (occurring in Stages 3 and 4) are marked by intense feelings of dread but lack the fearful narratives that characterize nightmares. Autonomic nervous system arousal is intense in night terrors but mild in nightmares.
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3.  False.  Because there is too little evidence to establish the usefulness of melatonin, the FDA has not approved it as a treatment for insomnia. Also, its long-term safety is uncertain. Evidence does suggest that melatonin helps some people with circadian rhythm disruptions.
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4.  False.  Research indicates that some hallucination-like dreams occur in stage 1. Unlike REM dreams, these stage 1 dreams do not follow a narrative or story-line.
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6.  False.  Infants enter REM sooner and for a greater percentage of sleep than do adults or older children.
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7.  True. Some require as few as 4 hours while others need as many as 10. Most people require between 6 and 10 hours of sleep.
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8.  True.  Ninety-five percent of people awakened during REM report dreaming. Failure to report dreaming, suggest researchers, reflects a failure of memory.
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9.  True. According to the 2005 Sleep in America poll, 54 percent of American adults report that, within the last year, they have experienced at least one or more symptoms of insomnia at least a few nights a week.
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10. False. Although the body rests during sleep, the brain is active and still controls body functions. More specifically, REM sleep is an active sleep during which dreams occur, breathing and heart rate increase and become irregular, and eyes move back and forth under the eyelids. Even in the deepest non-REM sleep, our minds still process information.
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12. False.  Barbiturates suppress central nervous system activity and are associated with a lower level of REM sleep than is healthy. Moreover, they are highly addictive and are associated with painful and difficult withdrawal.  Newer sleep medications (e.g., benzodiazepines) are much safer.
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13. False. Although generally safe, OTCs can cause nausea and, more rarely, fast or irregular heartbeat, blurred vision, and heightened sensitivity to sunlight. Because of the side effects of OTCs and because they are often ineffective in relieving sleep problems, experts generally advise against their use. Their primary ingredient is an antihistamine.
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14. False. Slow maturation of bladder control is the most common cause of bedwetting. Enuresis is viewed as a disorder of arousal, that is, an elevated sleep arousal threshold leaves the child unable to awaken after an enuretic episode.
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15. True.  Men over 50 are more likely to experience REM behavior disorder. They may hurt themselves or their bed partners. About one-third of them develop Parkinson’s disease within three years of REM behavior disorder’s onset.
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16. False (or is it True?)  Clearly there is disagreement on this one. The text cites evidence for the role of dreaming in memory consolidation. However, Palladino and Bloom cite Jerome Siegel’s review published in the November 2003 Scientific American that challenges the idea that REM sleep has a role in memory consolidation: “The findings that argue against memory consolidation include the demonstration that people who have brain damage that prevents REM sleep, or who have a drug-induced blockade of REM sleep, have normal—or even improved—memory” (p. 96).
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17. True.  Bigger animals—elephants, giraffes, humans—need less sleep than smaller animals—rats, cats, voles.  The reason seems related to the fact that small animals have higher metabolic rates and higher brain and body temperatures than do large animals.
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18. True.  Placing infants on their backs has reduced sudden infant death syndrome by about 40 percent.
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19. True.  Snoring can be a symptom of sleep apnea, which is characterized by pauses in breathing during sleep. The difficult breathing leads to decreased blood oxygen, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. The condition affects about 18 million adults in the United States and is most common among older, overweight men.
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20. True. Brain activity in fetuses is similar to that experienced by children and adults in REM.  This activity is associated with facial muscle twitches and muscular tonicity, which would also be expected during REM sleep.
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