The sleep and dream information questionnaire revised
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The Sleep and Dream Information Questionnaire-Revised. An introduction to the research on sleep and dreams. 1.  False.  Normal REM sleep is accompanied by muscle paralysis that makes acting out of dreams impossible. Sleepwalking actually occurs in sleep stages 3 and 4.

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The sleep and dream information questionnaire revised

The Sleep and Dream Information Questionnaire-Revised

An introduction to the research on sleep and dreams

  • 3.  False.  Because there is too little evidence to establish the usefulness of melatonin, the FDA has not approved it as a treatment for insomnia. Also, its long-term safety is uncertain. Evidence does suggest that melatonin helps some people with circadian rhythm disruptions.

  • 10. False. Although the body rests during sleep, the brain is active and still controls body functions. More specifically, REM sleep is an active sleep during which dreams occur, breathing and heart rate increase and become irregular, and eyes move back and forth under the eyelids. Even in the deepest non-REM sleep, our minds still process information.

  • 12. False.  Barbiturates suppress central nervous system activity and are associated with a lower level of REM sleep than is healthy. Moreover, they are highly addictive and are associated with painful and difficult withdrawal.  Newer sleep medications (e.g., benzodiazepines) are much safer.

  • 13. False. Although generally safe, OTCs can cause nausea and, more rarely, fast or irregular heartbeat, blurred vision, and heightened sensitivity to sunlight. Because of the side effects of OTCs and because they are often ineffective in relieving sleep problems, experts generally advise against their use. Their primary ingredient is an antihistamine.

  • 16. False (or is it True?)  Clearly there is disagreement on this one. The text cites evidence for the role of dreaming in memory consolidation. However, Palladino and Bloom cite Jerome Siegel’s review published in the November 2003 Scientific American that challenges the idea that REM sleep has a role in memory consolidation: “The findings that argue against memory consolidation include the demonstration that people who have brain damage that prevents REM sleep, or who have a drug-induced blockade of REM sleep, have normal—or even improved—memory” (p. 96).

  • 17. True.  Bigger animals—elephants, giraffes, humans—need less sleep than smaller animals—rats, cats, voles.  The reason seems related to the fact that small animals have higher metabolic rates and higher brain and body temperatures than do large animals.

  • 19. True.  Snoring can be a symptom of sleep apnea, which is characterized by pauses in breathing during sleep. The difficult breathing leads to decreased blood oxygen, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. The condition affects about 18 million adults in the United States and is most common among older, overweight men.

20. True. Brain activity in fetuses is similar to that experienced by children and adults in REM.  This activity is associated with facial muscle twitches and muscular tonicity, which would also be expected during REM sleep.