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Historical/Cultural/Philosophical Aspects of Exercise and Sports Science. Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science. Introduction Science of Human Movement Interdisciplinary Science Multiple Applications. Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science. Emergence of a Scientific Discipline

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foundations of exercise and sports science
Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science

Introduction

  • Science of Human Movement
  • Interdisciplinary Science
  • Multiple Applications
foundations of exercise and sports science1
Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science

Emergence of a Scientific Discipline

  • Scientific discipline has central focus
  • Merging disciplines create new ones
  • More advances with combined research
  • Common interests are sometimes the cause
foundations of exercise and sports science2
Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science

Exercise Science and Related Discipline

  • Multiple parent disciplines including:
    • Physics
    • Chemistry
    • Physiology/Anatomy
    • Medicine
slide5

Creation and growth of a new “discipline” or an “interdisciplinary” area of study occurs as a result of the interaction of previous work and the growth of related disciplines – this interaction can be noted from a historical perspective

slide6

Historical Aspects of Exercise and Sports Science

Early writings – Concentration on anatomical and medical aspects – some sports aspects

Herodicus –late 400’s BC

Hippocrates – 460-377 BC

Galen – 131-201 AD

Middle Ages/Renaissance –Strong Anatomical and Medical Aspects – beginnings of “Biomechanics”

Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519)

Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)

Giovanni Alfonso Borelli (1608-1679)

slide7

History Con’t

18th and 19th Century – Emergence of Physics, Chemistry and Physiology as “Disiplines”

Joseph Preistly (1733-1804) – oxygen

Cal Willhelm Scheele (1742-1786) – oxygen

Joseph Black (1728-1799) – carbon dioxide

Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) – metabolism

William Prout (1785-1850) – beginnings of exercise metabolism

Edward Hitchcock (1793-1864) – structure and function

Edward Hitchcock Jr. M.D.(1828-1911) – described use of “physical education” for health

Claude Bernard (1813-1878) – Father of Physiology

slide8

History Con’t

20th Century: growth of “Exercise Science”

George Wells (1860-1934)– Harvard – Scientific basis for Physical Education

Bruce Dill (1891-1986) – Director of Harvard Fatigue Lab (1927-1946)

Archibald V. Hill (1886-1977) – muscle contraction mechanics, energy consumption –Oxygen Uptake”

Thomas K. Cureton (1901-1993) -

Physical Fitness for Health

David C. Costill – glycogen replacement - swimming physiology

Jack H. Wilmore – Physical Fitness and Health

slide9

History Con’t

Current

Robert B. Armstrong- Texas A&M – muscle physiology

Michael Joiner – Mayo Clinic – blood flow

Larry Durstine – U. South Carolina – exercise and blood lipids

Travis N. Triplett – Appalachian State – resistance training and osteoporosis/women

slide10

Current Sports Scientist in the USA

Randy Wilber – USOC – triathlon, road cycling

Jay T. Kearney- Carmichael Training Systems - sports science- canoe/kayak and road cycling

William A. Sands- USOC – gymnastics “explosive strength” -

Brian Schilling – Memphis University – weightlifting- MU type and training alterations

Greg G. Haff – West Virginia – weightlifting resistance training effects on fuel use

slide11

Psychology

Mathematics

Physiology

Chemistry

Physics

Exercise and Sports Science

Sub-disciplines

slide12

The scope of Exercise and Sports Science –three primary areas (sub-disciplines)

  • Psychology: deals with behavioral aspects of exercise and sport including learning aspects
    • Physiology: How physiologic systems respond and adapt to human movement
    • Biomechanics: Study of physical/mechanical principles that underlie human motion
foundations of exercise and sports science3
Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science

Exercise and Sports Science— “New” Interdisciplinary Sciences

Characteristics of Science

  • A “science” needs objectivity and evidence
  • Need to distinguish between anecdotal and scientific evidence
foundations of exercise and sports science4
Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science
  • In search of Truth in Science(and Advertising)
    • Testimonial approach – often incorrect assumptions
    • Tenacity - Propaganda
    • Knowledge of authority
    • Rationalistic method – may lead to right or wrong hypothesis
  • Scientific method can alleviate inappropriate conclusions
foundations of exercise and sports science5
Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science

The Scientific Method

  • Goal is discovering what is true – science is not a philosophical debate
  • Basic tenet – truth is out there and it can be measured
  • Questions lead to research
    • Observation: Phenomenon to be explained
    • Hypothesis: Logical explanations
    • Experiment: Scientific study to verify hypotheses
  • The statistical approach
    • Mathematical tool to understand evidence
slide16

The Research Continuum: a generalization

Basic

Applied

performance

mechanisms

translational

Sports Scientists

Exercise Scientists

foundations of exercise and sports science6
Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science

Basic Versus Applied Research

  • Basic Research
    • To acquire new knowledge
    • Knowledge has to be developed before it can be applied
  • Translational Research: bridging the gap between basic and applied – “assigns” mechanisms to applied findings
  • Applied Research
    • Obvious applications (sport – health)
    • Answers very specific research question
foundations of exercise and sports science7
Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science

Animal Research in Exercise and Sports Science

  • Many advances obtained through research on animals
  • Animals have also benefited
  • Often combined with human research
  • Goal is to enhance knowledge of Exercise and Sports Science
foundations of exercise and sports science8
Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science

The Research Continuum

  • Questions may lead to other areas of science
  • Need both basic, translational and applied research
  • Maximum usefulness when adjacent levels understand and communicate issues of other levels
foundations of exercise and sports science9
Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science

Movement at Every Level

  • Performance continuum: Individuals at different levels
  • Three categories
    • Subnormal
    • Normal
    • Supernormal
  • Studying all three categories yields better understanding of Exercise Science
slide21

Professional and Interest Group Organizations Associated with Exercise and Sports Sciences (Examples)

American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD)

American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)

European College of Sports Medicine (ECSM)

International Society of Biomechanics in Sports (ISBS)

National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA)

United Kingdom Strength and Conditioning Association (UKSCA)

slide22

Sports Science – What is it?

Michael H. Stone, PhD

PEXS

East Tennessee State University

slide23

EXERCISE SCIENCE

SPORTS SCIENCE

MECHANISMS

ADULT FITNESS/ MEDICAL ASPECTS

PAEDIATRIC FACTORS

GERIATRIC FACTORS

ERGONOMICS

NUTRITION

PERFORMANCE

slide25

EXERCISE SCIENCE: GENERAL TERM -

  • study of biological responses and adaptations to exercise and training
  • depends upon the disciplines of biomechanics, physiology, psychology, sociology, mechanical, electrical, and computer engineering
  • includes various specialities
slide26

SPORT SCIENCE:

  • enhancement of sport performance and sport equipment through the application of scientific methods and principles
slide27

EXERCISE SCIENTISTS:

  • - uses exercise or training to understand biology
  • SPORT SCIENTISTS:
  • - uses biology to understand sport
  • function to bridge the gap between science and sport
slide28

To be a better sport scientist(s):

1. be a very good scientist

2. be interested in the sport(s) and the development of elite performance

3. knowledge of sport(s) – personal interest

4. knowledge of training practices and outcomes

5. be willing to train like they do ? – better understand the sport

6. regular discussions with athletes and coaches

7. understand the politics

8. provoke thought -challenge

Become part of the sport.

slide29

SPORTS SCIENCE:BASIC FUNCTIONS

1. EDUCATION

2. SPORTS TESTING AND FEEDBACK

3. RESEARCH

slide30

EDUCATION

1. coach (coaching the coach)/students

2. athlete

3. other sports scientists – mentor junior scientists

slide31

SPORTS TESTING AND FEEDBACK

  • INTEGRATED APPROACH
  • PICK THE BEST TESTS - BUT!!!
  • - relatively simple test - good reliability
  • - insure fast and reliable feedback for coaches and athletes
  • - make sure results are comprehensible and usable
  • ONGOING RE-EXAMINATION OF TESTING SERVICE
slide32

RESEARCH

  • a diligent and systematic enquiry or investigation in order to discover facts or principles
  • to investigate carefully
  • SEARCH FOR TRUTH AND CLARITY
  • CURRENTLY - WITHOUT RESEARCH – SPORT IS RARELY PUSHED AHEAD
slide33

RESEARCH AND SPORT SCIENCE

1. Practical

2. How can it be applied – not always apparent to the coach/athlete

3. Performance oriented

- coach - sport scientists interaction

- results should be reported ASAP

- often carried out within the sports testing programme

slide34

DEVELOP INNOVATIVE TESTING-RESEARCH PROGRAMMES

Example:

1. get the coaches involved in collecting data

- sport testing

- research

- talent ID

2. get NGB sport science committees involved in collecting data

3. use on-line services (MONITORING)

slide35

A NECESSITY: INTEGRATED

  • PROGRAMME PLANNING
  • Why should coaches be interested in Sport Science?
  • – a good coach does not simply imitate but innovates
  • - Art and Science
  • IDEALLY-SPORT SCIENCE , NGB’S AND COACHES WORK TOGETHER TO FORMULATE A TRAINING/TESTING PROGRAMME
slide36

THE IDEAL: DELIVERING SPORT SCIENCE TO THE ELITE ATHLETE AND COACHES IN THE USA

NGB

COACH/ATHLETE

USOC SPORT SCIENCE

DATA COLLECTION

NGB SS COMMITTEE

slide38

EXERCISE CONTINUUM

STRENGTH

EXERCISE

POWER

EXERCISE

ENDURANCE

EXERCISE

?

STRENGTH

TRAINING

POWER

TRAINING

ENDURANCE

TRAINING

foundations of exercise science
Foundations of Exercise Science

Summary Points

  • Exercise Science and Sports Science are new fields of study formed by merging other disciplines
  • Major areas of concentration include: physiology, biomechanics and psychology
  • Anecdotal evidence can be presented through: testimonial approach, tenacity, knowledge of authority, and rationalistic method
foundations of exercise science1
Foundations of Exercise Science

Summary Points(cont.)

  • Scientific method uses : controlled observation, hypothesis, and experimentation
  • Basic research lays foundation for Applied and “Translational” research, which allows for improvements to specific areas of Exercise and Sports Science
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