Historical/Cultural/Philosophical Aspects of Exercise and Sports Science
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Historical/Cultural/Philosophical Aspects of Exercise and Sports Science. Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science. Introduction Science of Human Movement Interdisciplinary Science Multiple Applications. Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science. Emergence of a Scientific Discipline

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Historical cultural philosophical aspects of exercise and sports science

Historical/Cultural/Philosophical Aspects of Exercise and Sports Science


Foundations of exercise and sports science

Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science

Introduction

  • Science of Human Movement

  • Interdisciplinary Science

  • Multiple Applications


Foundations of exercise and sports science1

Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science

Emergence of a Scientific Discipline

  • Scientific discipline has central focus

  • Merging disciplines create new ones

  • More advances with combined research

  • Common interests are sometimes the cause


Foundations of exercise and sports science2

Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science

Exercise Science and Related Discipline

  • Multiple parent disciplines including:

    • Physics

    • Chemistry

    • Physiology/Anatomy

    • Medicine


Historical cultural philosophical aspects of exercise and sports science

Creation and growth of a new “discipline” or an “interdisciplinary” area of study occurs as a result of the interaction of previous work and the growth of related disciplines – this interaction can be noted from a historical perspective


Historical cultural philosophical aspects of exercise and sports science

Historical Aspects of Exercise and Sports Science

Early writings – Concentration on anatomical and medical aspects – some sports aspects

Herodicus –late 400’s BC

Hippocrates – 460-377 BC

Galen – 131-201 AD

Middle Ages/Renaissance –Strong Anatomical and Medical Aspects – beginnings of “Biomechanics”

Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519)

Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)

Giovanni Alfonso Borelli (1608-1679)


Historical cultural philosophical aspects of exercise and sports science

History Con’t

18th and 19th Century – Emergence of Physics, Chemistry and Physiology as “Disiplines”

Joseph Preistly (1733-1804) – oxygen

Cal Willhelm Scheele (1742-1786) – oxygen

Joseph Black (1728-1799) – carbon dioxide

Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) – metabolism

William Prout (1785-1850) – beginnings of exercise metabolism

Edward Hitchcock (1793-1864) – structure and function

Edward Hitchcock Jr. M.D.(1828-1911) – described use of “physical education” for health

Claude Bernard (1813-1878) – Father of Physiology


Historical cultural philosophical aspects of exercise and sports science

History Con’t

20th Century: growth of “Exercise Science”

George Wells (1860-1934)– Harvard – Scientificbasis for Physical Education

Bruce Dill (1891-1986) – Director of Harvard Fatigue Lab (1927-1946)

Archibald V. Hill (1886-1977) – muscle contraction mechanics, energy consumption –Oxygen Uptake”

Thomas K. Cureton (1901-1993) -

Physical Fitness for Health

David C. Costill – glycogen replacement - swimming physiology

Jack H. Wilmore – Physical Fitness and Health


Historical cultural philosophical aspects of exercise and sports science

History Con’t

Current

Robert B. Armstrong- Texas A&M – muscle physiology

Michael Joiner – Mayo Clinic – blood flow

Larry Durstine – U. South Carolina – exercise and blood lipids

Travis N. Triplett – Appalachian State – resistance training and osteoporosis/women


Historical cultural philosophical aspects of exercise and sports science

Current Sports Scientist in the USA

Randy Wilber – USOC – triathlon, road cycling

Jay T. Kearney- Carmichael Training Systems- sports science- canoe/kayak and road cycling

William A. Sands- USOC – gymnastics “explosive strength” -

Brian Schilling – Memphis University – weightlifting- MU type and training alterations

Greg G. Haff – West Virginia – weightlifting resistance training effects on fuel use


Historical cultural philosophical aspects of exercise and sports science

Psychology

Mathematics

Physiology

Chemistry

Physics

Exercise and Sports Science

Sub-disciplines


Historical cultural philosophical aspects of exercise and sports science

  • The scope of Exercise and Sports Science –three primary areas (sub-disciplines)

  • Psychology: deals with behavioral aspects of exercise and sport including learning aspects

    • Physiology: How physiologic systems respond and adapt to human movement

    • Biomechanics: Study of physical/mechanical principles that underlie human motion


Foundations of exercise and sports science3

Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science

Exercise and Sports Science— “New” Interdisciplinary Sciences

Characteristics of Science

  • A “science” needs objectivity and evidence

  • Need to distinguish between anecdotal and scientific evidence


Foundations of exercise and sports science4

Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science

  • In search of Truth in Science(and Advertising)

    • Testimonial approach – often incorrect assumptions

    • Tenacity - Propaganda

    • Knowledge of authority

    • Rationalistic method – may lead to right or wrong hypothesis

  • Scientific method can alleviate inappropriate conclusions


Foundations of exercise and sports science5

Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science

The Scientific Method

  • Goal is discovering what is true – science is not a philosophical debate

  • Basic tenet – truth is out there and it can be measured

  • Questions lead to research

    • Observation: Phenomenon to be explained

    • Hypothesis: Logical explanations

    • Experiment: Scientific study to verify hypotheses

  • The statistical approach

    • Mathematical tool to understand evidence


Historical cultural philosophical aspects of exercise and sports science

The Research Continuum: a generalization

Basic

Applied

performance

mechanisms

translational

Sports Scientists

Exercise Scientists


Foundations of exercise and sports science6

Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science

Basic Versus Applied Research

  • Basic Research

    • To acquire new knowledge

    • Knowledge has to be developed before it can be applied

  • Translational Research: bridging the gap between basic and applied – “assigns” mechanisms to applied findings

  • Applied Research

    • Obvious applications (sport – health)

    • Answers very specific research question


Foundations of exercise and sports science7

Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science

Animal Research in Exercise and Sports Science

  • Many advances obtained through research on animals

  • Animals have also benefited

  • Often combined with human research

  • Goal is to enhance knowledge of Exercise and Sports Science


Foundations of exercise and sports science8

Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science

The Research Continuum

  • Questions may lead to other areas of science

  • Need both basic, translational and applied research

  • Maximum usefulness when adjacent levels understand and communicate issues of other levels


Foundations of exercise and sports science9

Foundations of Exercise and Sports Science

Movement at Every Level

  • Performance continuum: Individuals at different levels

  • Three categories

    • Subnormal

    • Normal

    • Supernormal

  • Studying all three categories yields better understanding of Exercise Science


Historical cultural philosophical aspects of exercise and sports science

Professional and Interest Group Organizations Associated with Exercise and Sports Sciences (Examples)

American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD)

American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM)

European College of Sports Medicine (ECSM)

International Society of Biomechanics in Sports (ISBS)

National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA)

United Kingdom Strength and Conditioning Association (UKSCA)


Historical cultural philosophical aspects of exercise and sports science

Sports Science – What is it?

Michael H. Stone, PhD

PEXS

East Tennessee State University


Historical cultural philosophical aspects of exercise and sports science

EXERCISE SCIENCE

SPORTS SCIENCE

MECHANISMS

ADULT FITNESS/ MEDICAL ASPECTS

PAEDIATRIC FACTORS

GERIATRIC FACTORS

ERGONOMICS

NUTRITION

PERFORMANCE


Historical cultural philosophical aspects of exercise and sports science

Biology: interdisciplinary study of life


Historical cultural philosophical aspects of exercise and sports science

  • EXERCISE SCIENCE: GENERAL TERM -

  • study of biological responses and adaptations to exercise and training

  • depends upon the disciplines of biomechanics, physiology, psychology, sociology, mechanical, electrical, and computer engineering

  • includes various specialities


Historical cultural philosophical aspects of exercise and sports science

  • SPORT SCIENCE:

  • enhancement of sport performance and sport equipment through the application of scientific methods and principles


Historical cultural philosophical aspects of exercise and sports science

  • EXERCISE SCIENTISTS:

  • -uses exercise or training to understand biology

  • SPORT SCIENTISTS:

  • -uses biology to understand sport

  • function to bridge the gap between science and sport


Historical cultural philosophical aspects of exercise and sports science

To be a better sport scientist(s):

1. be a very good scientist

2. be interested in the sport(s) and the development of elite performance

3. knowledge of sport(s) – personal interest

4. knowledge of training practices and outcomes

5. be willing to train like they do ? – better understand the sport

6. regular discussions with athletes and coaches

7. understand the politics

8. provoke thought -challenge

Become part of the sport.


Historical cultural philosophical aspects of exercise and sports science

SPORTS SCIENCE:BASIC FUNCTIONS

1. EDUCATION

2. SPORTS TESTING AND FEEDBACK

3. RESEARCH


Historical cultural philosophical aspects of exercise and sports science

EDUCATION

1. coach (coaching the coach)/students

2. athlete

3. other sports scientists – mentor junior scientists


Historical cultural philosophical aspects of exercise and sports science

  • SPORTS TESTING AND FEEDBACK

  • INTEGRATED APPROACH

  • PICK THE BEST TESTS - BUT!!!

  • - relatively simple test - good reliability

  • - insure fast and reliable feedback for coaches and athletes

  • - make sure results are comprehensible and usable

  • ONGOING RE-EXAMINATION OF TESTING SERVICE


Historical cultural philosophical aspects of exercise and sports science

  • RESEARCH

  • a diligent and systematic enquiry or investigation in order to discover facts or principles

  • to investigate carefully

  • SEARCH FOR TRUTH AND CLARITY

  • CURRENTLY - WITHOUT RESEARCH – SPORT IS RARELY PUSHED AHEAD


Historical cultural philosophical aspects of exercise and sports science

RESEARCH AND SPORT SCIENCE

1. Practical

2. How can it be applied – not always apparent to the coach/athlete

3. Performance oriented

- coach - sport scientists interaction

- results should be reported ASAP

- often carried out within the sports testing programme


Historical cultural philosophical aspects of exercise and sports science

DEVELOP INNOVATIVE TESTING-RESEARCH PROGRAMMES

Example:

1. get the coaches involved in collecting data

- sport testing

- research

- talent ID

2. get NGB sport science committees involved in collecting data

3. use on-line services (MONITORING)


Historical cultural philosophical aspects of exercise and sports science

  • A NECESSITY: INTEGRATED

  • PROGRAMME PLANNING

  • Why should coaches be interested in Sport Science?

  • – a good coach does not simply imitate but innovates

  • - Art and Science

  • IDEALLY-SPORT SCIENCE , NGB’S AND COACHES WORK TOGETHER TO FORMULATE A TRAINING/TESTING PROGRAMME


Historical cultural philosophical aspects of exercise and sports science

THE IDEAL: DELIVERING SPORT SCIENCE TO THE ELITE ATHLETE AND COACHES IN THE USA

NGB

COACH/ATHLETE

USOC SPORT SCIENCE

DATA COLLECTION

NGB SS COMMITTEE


Historical cultural philosophical aspects of exercise and sports science

TESTING/RESEARCH/PROGRAMME PLANNING:

TWO IMPORTANT CONCEPTS


Historical cultural philosophical aspects of exercise and sports science

EXERCISE CONTINUUM

STRENGTH

EXERCISE

POWER

EXERCISE

ENDURANCE

EXERCISE

?

STRENGTH

TRAINING

POWER

TRAINING

ENDURANCE

TRAINING


Historical cultural philosophical aspects of exercise and sports science

RECOVERYRECOVERYRECOVERY


Foundations of exercise science

Foundations of Exercise Science

Summary Points

  • Exercise Science and Sports Science are new fields of study formed by merging other disciplines

  • Major areas of concentration include: physiology, biomechanics and psychology

  • Anecdotal evidence can be presented through: testimonial approach, tenacity, knowledge of authority, and rationalistic method


Foundations of exercise science1

Foundations of Exercise Science

Summary Points(cont.)

  • Scientific method uses : controlled observation, hypothesis, and experimentation

  • Basic research lays foundation for Applied and “Translational” research, which allows for improvements to specific areas of Exercise and Sports Science


Historical cultural philosophical aspects of exercise and sports science

THE END


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