精神分析與日常生活
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精神分析與日常生活 ( 一 ). Sigmund Freud (1856-1939). 無神論的猶太人 十九世紀對於意識與理性層面之探討,排除意識或理性之外的心靈活動 歇斯底里病患的研究 Breuer and Anna O 談話治療 滌清法 (cathartic method) 清掃心裡的煙囪. 移情 (transference) 、阻抗 (resistance) 宣洩 (cathartic method) 醫生 — 病患關係的重要 互動的舞台 意識 conscious 前意識 preconscious 無意識(潛意識) unconscious.

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Sigmund freud 1856 1939
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

  • 無神論的猶太人

  • 十九世紀對於意識與理性層面之探討,排除意識或理性之外的心靈活動

  • 歇斯底里病患的研究

  • Breuer and Anna O

  • 談話治療

  • 滌清法(cathartic method)

  • 清掃心裡的煙囪


  • 移情(transference)、阻抗(resistance)

  • 宣洩(cathartic method)

  • 醫生—病患關係的重要

  • 互動的舞台

  • 意識conscious

  • 前意識preconscious

  • 無意識(潛意識)unconscious


  • 歇斯底里症的研究》(Studies in Hysteria)

    (參見資料)


  • Psychoanalysis精神分析

  • a method of healing/therapy;

  • theory of personality or mind;

  • theory of culture (of morality, group life, society, history, art and religion)

  • as the architects of the modern world (with Marx, Nietzsche, Weber, Durkheim)


  • 由神經症(neurosis)治療場域所產生的知識

  • 研究傳統心理學所忽視之病態行為,人格失常等問題。透過反常心理的理解去揭示正常人心理活動的過程。

  • 不重視傳統心理學的研究課題,諸如注意,感覺,知覺,思維;側重探討無意識,情緒,慾望,動機,人格等深層內容。

  • 不採用實驗控制法,而是運用臨床觀察法。


The psychotherapy of everyday life 1901
The Psychotherapy of Everyday Life (1901)

  • 以日常經驗為基礎,將所研究的無意識內容,發展成一門獨立的學科

  • Parapraxes (Freud’s slips)

  • Bungled actions

  • Forms of forgetting

  • “The phenomena can be traced back to incompletely suppressed psychical material, which, although pushed away by consciousness, has nevertheless not been robbed of all capacity for expressing itself”


  • For Freud, all forms of everyday parapraxes register suppressed material.

  • The suppressed material might be the traumatic material of early life (and thus not ‘everyday’ in the literal sense) it continues to live (to haunt us) in our everyday life (and through dreams, in our every-night life)

  • 對時間的理解



對日常生活研究的啟發 it almost impossible to live their everyday lives and are in need of some kind of help, his usual field of contemplation is the everyday world of the ordinarily troubled.

  • 日常生活與文化理論的核心:在理性思考的文化之中,施展「奇異化」的能力。

  • For Freud, the everyday is both real and unreal, both actuality and the disguise of actuality.

  • The everyday is not as it appears. Behind (or alongside, or underneath) the appearance of everyday life lies another actuality.


  • For Freud what is bracketed out in the appearance of everyday life is a forceful realm of desire and fear that can, if unchecked, burst through the propriety of daily life.

  • Slip of the tongue, dream, neurosis

  • For the most part ‘culture and society’ can be understood as the name given to the checking and censorship that manages the troubling presence of these drives. Propriety and etiquette (the protocols of everyday life) instill a form of life ‘safe’ from untrammeled desires and murderous lusts.


  • Civilized conduct might constitute a seemly veil over a much more unseemly actuality.

  • Social propriety (morality, civilized behavior) as a ritualistic and socially sanctioned representation of desirous and fearful material

  • Primeval desires could be seen as being re-coded into socially legitimate ones: in the place of blood-thirsty aggression lies “healthy” competition and ambition…


  • Everyday life becomes the stage where the unconscious perform, but never with its gloves off.

  • The unconscious can be seen only in glimpses.

  • On the one hand the everyday becomes a repressive realm that censors the unconscious. On the other hand everyday life becomes the place where, however indirectly, the unconscious makes its presence felt.


  • Freud attempts to reveal structures that might underpin the everyday reality of experience and to do this Freud navigate across the poles of the particular and the general.

  • On the one hand the surface of the everyday (its manifest content) need to be given the closest of scrutiny (what you see is what there is), and on the other hand the project is precisely to go behind the scenes and reveal underlying structures and latent contents.


參考資料 everyday reality of experience and to do this Freud navigate across the poles of the particular and the general.

  • Ben Highmore, The Everyday Life Reader, 2002. New York: Routledge.

  • Ben Highmore, Everyday Life And Cultural Theory, 2002. New York: Routledge. (日常生活與文化理論)

  • 熊哲宏,心靈深處的王國:佛洛伊德的精神分析學。2000, 台北:貓頭鷹。


夢的解析( everyday reality of experience and to do this Freud navigate across the poles of the particular and the general.1899)

如果不能震撼上蒼

我也要攪動地獄



  • 1894夢具有心理意涵,透過適當的解釋,可以得知清醒生活中的驅動力。年起,開始有系統地記錄自己的夢

  • 1895年3月首次運用後來發展出來的「願望實現」論

  • 伊碼的注射之夢

  • Haus Bellevue:「1895年7月24日,弗洛伊德醫師在此揭開了夢的奧秘」

  • 首次在一門學科中發展出方向獨立的理論

  • 發現自己的謎題與謎底


顯夢與隱夢夢具有心理意涵,透過適當的解釋,可以得知清醒生活中的驅動力。

  • 顯夢內容:夢境內容

  • 隱夢:無意識的欲望,因為種種理由不能通過夢的稽查,而無法到達意識層面。

  • 通過夢的稽查的唯一可能性,就是對隱夢意念進行扭曲。而此扭曲的任務則由「夢的工作」來承擔


  • 第一段話(夢具有心理意涵,透過適當的解釋,可以得知清醒生活中的驅動力。p.90)

  • 夢的問題的學術文獻

  • 夢與清醒生活的關係(p.95-96)

  • 夢的材料—夢中記憶:超越清醒時精神活動的記憶、童年記憶、做夢前兩三天的印象、偶然的細節與無謂的瑣事

  • 對普遍記憶理論的啟發(104)


真實的夢夢具有心理意涵,透過適當的解釋,可以得知清醒生活中的驅動力。vs.清醒後對夢的記憶

  • Freud真正感興趣的是仍在記憶中,已經被轉化成隱夢意念的夢

  • 引導我們從顯夢內容到所隱藏的意義,這個引導過程或技術稱之為夢的解析。它是與夢用作恰巧相反的過程。


夢的刺激和來源夢具有心理意涵,透過適當的解釋,可以得知清醒生活中的驅動力。

  • 神靈的啟示?

  • 外部(客觀)的感覺刺激

  • 內部(主觀)的感覺刺激

  • 內部(器官)的軀體刺激

  • 純精神來源的刺激


夢在醒後為何被遺忘?夢具有心理意涵,透過適當的解釋,可以得知清醒生活中的驅動力。

  • 從睡眠狀態到清醒狀態的變化,不利於二間的交互再現

  • 夢中意念材料的不同排列方式,使夢在清醒意識中變得無法解釋

  • 再現的可靠性?


夢的顯著心理特徵夢具有心理意涵,透過適當的解釋,可以得知清醒生活中的驅動力。

  • 兩個特徵:我們自覺為自主性的概念活動的軟弱無能,以及意象的出現

  • 主要以視覺意象進行思維

  • 夢的活動不像記憶的呈現,比較像知覺與體驗

  • 以幻覺代替思想

  • 從意念到幻覺:夢以意象構成一個情境,表現一件實際上正在發生的事情



  • 與精神疾病的類比自我權威的終結:入睡帶來一定程度的被動性,與睡眠伴生的意象只有在自我力量削弱的情況下才能產生(

  • 低評價與高評價

  • P.141之總結

  • 夢的精神成就在過去容易得到高評價的原因(p.142)


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