Plate tectonics
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Plate Tectonics. The Crust. Outermost layer 5 – 70 km thick Solid, rigid. The Mantle. Layer of Earth between the crust and the core Made up of 3 parts. The Core. Below the mantle and to the center of the Earth Outer core = liquid Inner core = solid. Plate Tectonics.

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The crust
The Crust

  • Outermost layer

  • 5 – 70 km thick

  • Solid, rigid


The mantle
The Mantle

  • Layer of Earth between the crust and the core

  • Made up of 3 parts


The core
The Core

  • Below the mantle and to the center of the Earth

  • Outer core = liquid

  • Inner core = solid


Plate tectonics1
Plate Tectonics

  • Pieces of the lithosphere that move around

  • Each plate has a name

  • Float on top of mantle similar to ice cubes in a bowl of water


Lithosphere
Lithosphere

  • Uppermost part of the mantle, along the overlying crust

  • Break into pieces called plates

  • Overlies a weaker region of the mantle known as the asthenosphere

    • Temperature/pressure in the uppermost asthenosphere, creates a weak zone that allows the lithosphere to be detached=movement


How plates move
How Plates Move

http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/unanswered.html


Sea floor spreading
Sea Floor Spreading

  • Mid Ocean Ridges – underwater mountain chains that run through the Earth’s Basins

  • Magma rises to the surface and solidifies and new crust forms

  • Older Crust is pushed

    farther away from the ridge



Plate boundaries
Plate Boundaries

  • Interactions among individual plates, creating deformation, occur along their boundaries

  • Plates are bounded by three distinct types of boundaries

    • These boundaries are determined by the type of movement they exhibit


Divergent boundaries
Divergent Boundaries

  • Constructive margins

  • Two plates move apart, resulting in an upwelling of material from the mantle to create new sea floor

    • Seafloor spreading, creates new sea floor, magma rises when spreading

    • Older Crust is pushed farther away from the ridge



Arabian Plate

Red Sea

African Plate


Convergent boundaries
Convergent Boundaries

  • Destructive margins

  • Two plates move together, resulting in oceanic lithosphere descending (trench) beneath an overriding plate (subduction zones)

    • eventually to be recycled into the mantle or create mountain system

  • Oceanic-Continental, continental volcanic arc

  • Oceanic-Oceanic, volcanic island arc

  • Continental-Continental, collision mountains


Convergent boundary oceanic continental
Convergent Boundary – Oceanic & Continental

http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/understanding.html & http://www.geology.com


Convergent boundary oceanic oceanic
Convergent Boundary – Oceanic & Oceanic

Note – plates are reversed

http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/understanding.html & http://www.geology.com


Convergent boundaries continental
Convergent Boundaries - Continental

http://pubs.usgs.gov/gip/dynamic/understanding.html & http://www.geology.com


EurasianPlate

Indian Plate


Transform fault boundaries
Transform Fault Boundaries

  • Conservative margins

  • Two plates grind past one another without production or destruction of lithosphere

San Andreas Fault



Review
Review

  • Name the 3 main layers of the Earth

  • What is a tectonic plate?

  • What was Pangaea?

  • What is Sea-Floor spreading?

  • Name the three different types of plate boundaries and how they move.

  • What is found at each type of plate boundary?


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