Herd management of musculoskeletal disorders in cattle
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Herd management of musculoskeletal disorders in cattle. Dr. Simon Kenyon. Objectives. Recognize the common musculoskeletal disorders of cattle Understand the management factors that lead to them Understand prevention, monitoring and control of these conditions

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Herd management of musculoskeletal disorders in cattle

Herd management of musculoskeletal disorders in cattle

Dr. Simon Kenyon


Objectives

Objectives

  • Recognize the common musculoskeletal disorders of cattle

  • Understand the management factors that lead to them

  • Understand prevention, monitoring and control of these conditions

  • Review treatment options for individual animals


Common musculoskeletal problems

Common musculoskeletal problems

  • Laminitis and hoof horn quality problems

  • Infectious conditions of the bovine foot

  • Joint disease

  • Nutritional & toxic

  • Other conditions


Lameness in cattle

Lameness in cattle

  • 95% of lame cattle are dairy breeds

  • 80% of cases involve the digits

  • 80% of digital lameness involves the hindlimbs

  • 50% of digital lameness involves the horn and 50% the skin (mostly heel warts)

  • 70% of the horny lesions involve the outer claw


Diseases of the hoof horn

Diseases of the hoof horn

  • Laminitis – inflammation of the laminar corium, founder

  • Sole hemorrhage, sole ulcer (Rusterholz ulcer), under-run sole

  • White line disease – separation of the laminar corium

  • Heel erosion – slurry foot

  • Double sole


Herd management of musculoskeletal disorders in cattle

Under-run Sole and Hemorrhage


Double sole

Double sole


Sand crack

Sand Crack


Acute laminitis

Acute Laminitis

Roached back

Obviously sore feet

Extremely reluctant to walk


Laminitis in dairy cattle

Laminitis in Dairy Cattle

  • Laminitis: Inflammation of the laminar corium of the hoof wall and the sole corium


Herd management of musculoskeletal disorders in cattle

Locomotion Scoring

ZINPRO Corp.


Laminitis in dairy cattle1

Laminitis in Dairy Cattle


Significance of locomotion scores

Significance of Locomotion Scores

  • Cows with a locomotion score > 2

    • 2.8 times more likely to have increased days to first service

    • 15.6 times more likely to have increased days open

    • 9.0 times more likely to have more services per conception

    • 8.4 times more likely to be culled than herdmates

      ________________________________________

Sprecher, et al.,Theriogenology, 1997, 47:1179-1187.


Impact of lameness on culling

Impact of Lameness on Culling

  • NAHMS, USDA 1996

    • 15% of culling because of lameness

    • Additional impact on milk yield, and reproduction.

    • Estimated that indirect effects of lameness contribute to another 49% of culls


Herd management of musculoskeletal disorders in cattle

Horse pedal bone “hangs”in the lamellae


Laminitis in the horse

Laminitis in the Horse


A cow is not a horse

A Cow is Not a Horse


Bovine suspensory apparatus

Bovine Suspensory Apparatus

P3 fixed supported by digital cushion and suspended by bundles of collagen fibers

attached to the basement layer of the abaxial wall. If fibers stretch P3 sinks and

Deforms and compresses the sole.

From Lischer & Ossent, 2007


Effects of laminitis and sinkage of p 3 on the digital cushion

Effects of Laminitis and Sinkage of P3 on the Digital Cushion

From Lischer & Ossent, 2007.


Herd management of musculoskeletal disorders in cattle

Mean Digital Cushion Thickness measured here

Bicalho et al JDS 2009


Herd management of musculoskeletal disorders in cattle

From Bergsten, 2004


Risk factors in the cow

Risk Factors in the Cow

  • Nutritional i.e. rumen acidosis

  • Calving

  • Compression and pressure effects on the digital cushion

  • Thinning of the sole

  • Mechanical stress on the foot

  • Uneven wear


Dairy nutrition

Dairy Nutrition

  • Maximize dry matter intake

  • Maximize energy intake

  • Preserve rumen health

  • Protect the transition cow


Energy fiber constraints

Energy& Fiber Constraints

Percent of Ration Dry Matter


Forage concentrate ratio

Forage : Concentrate Ratio

Hay:Grain


Cow time management

Cow Time Management

  • 3-5 hours eating

  • 9 – 14 meals

  • 48,080 chews (10% of energy use)

  • 7 – 10 hours ruminating

  • 30 minutes drinking

  • 2-3 hours milking

  • Needs 10 hours of lying/resting


Freestall comfort

Freestall comfort


Time budgets top 10 vs the rest hrs day

Time budgets – Top 10% vs the rest (hrs/day)

Matzke, 2003


Mattresses

Mattresses

  • Resilient

  • Well bedded

  • Knee test


Free stall use

Free Stall Use


Flooring

Flooring

  • Green concrete very abrasive

  • Grooving

  • Scrabbling

  • Rubber mats


Herd management of musculoskeletal disorders in cattle

T. Raven, Cattle Footcare

and Claw Trimming, 1989.


Herd management of musculoskeletal disorders in cattle

T. Raven, Cattle Footcare

and Claw Trimming, 1989.


Supplementation

Supplementation

  • Biotin 20 mg/day

  • Zinc


Musculoskeletal 2

Musculoskeletal 2

Kenyon


Diseases of the hoof skin

Diseases of the hoof skin

  • Digital dermatitis – hairy heel warts

  • Interdigitalnecrobacillosis –phlegmon, foul in the foot, foot rot

  • Interdigital skin hyperplasia – corns

  • (Interdigital dermatitis) and (verrucose dermatitis) – both probably the same as digital dermatitis


Infectious pododermatitis

Infectious pododermatitis


Digital dermatitis

Digital dermatitis


Digital dermatitis1

Digital dermatitis


Herd management of musculoskeletal disorders in cattle

Read & Walker J Vet Diagn Invest 10:67–76 (1998)


Herd management of musculoskeletal disorders in cattle

Read & Walker J Vet Diagn Invest 10:67–76 (1998)


Herd management of musculoskeletal disorders in cattle

Soft tissue inflammation Septic arthritis


Herd management of musculoskeletal disorders in cattle

Through and through lavage


Fescue foot

Fescue foot


Fescue foot1

Fescue foot

Refer also to “summer slump” (epidemic hyperthermia)


Herd management of musculoskeletal disorders in cattle

Enzootic nutritional myopathy

(White Muscle Disease)


Herd management of musculoskeletal disorders in cattle

Spastic paresis


Hygromata

Hygromata

Neil Anderson, OMAFRA

FAO pic


Stifle injury

Stifle injury


Calving injuries

Calving Injuries

Obturator and Sciatic Nerve Injury


Calving injuries1

Calving Injuries

Tibial Nerve Injury

Image: NADIS.ORG


Femoral nerve paralysis

Femoral Nerve Paralysis

Calving Injuries

Image: NADIS.ORG


Cow lift devices

Cow lift devices

Slings

Aqua Cow


Coxofemoral luxation

Coxofemoralluxation


Herd management of musculoskeletal disorders in cattle

Coverall Barn


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