Gender diversity in computer science some data some experience some suggestions
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Gender Diversity in Computer Science: Some Data, Some Experience, Some Suggestions. Ruth E. Davis Robert W. Peters Professor of Computer Engineering Associate Dean, Undergraduate Studies. Diversity in Computing: data, experience, suggestions. Why diversity matters

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Gender diversity in computer science some data some experience some suggestions

Gender Diversity in Computer Science: Some Data, Some Experience, Some Suggestions

Ruth E. Davis

Robert W. Peters Professor of Computer Engineering

Associate Dean, Undergraduate Studies


Diversity in computing data experience suggestions

Diversity in Computing: data, experience, suggestions

  • Why diversity matters

  • The Incredible Shrinking Pipeline1

    • Data from US and elsewhere

  • Efforts to widen the pipe

    • Anita Borg Institute

    • SCU

    • CMU

  • What can be done and resources to help

    • Recruitment

    • Retention

    • NCWIT, ACM-W, CRA-W, ABI, Project Athena – SWAN, UK Resource Center for Women in SET, Systers, TAP, [email protected] at CMU

      1 The Incredible Shrinking PipelineTracy Camp, Colorado School of Mines An edited version of this paper appears in Communications of the ACM, vol.40, no. 10, pp. 103-110, Oct. 1997


Why diversity matters

Why Diversity Matters

Diversity of participation is critical for computing.

Our thinking patterns are shaped by our experience, and thus the greater the diversity of our backgrounds and experience, the greater the diversity of our thinking and the greater the likelihood for new and creative solutions to the problems with which we are faced.

Eg., “Technology for the home” vs “… the family”

MIT’s kitchen of the future


Some reasons we don t have diversity image

Some reasons we don’t have diversity - IMAGE

  • Most people have no idea what engineers (or computer scientists) do

  • Bill Wulf, President of the National Academies of Engineering, quoted a Gallup poll recording the general public’s association of words with engineers:

    • “invents” …… 2 %

    • “creative” ….. 3%

    • “train operator” …… 5%

  • Most students who choose engineering had the benefit of knowing someone in the profession – this kind of connection serves to perpetuate the lack of diversity in the field


Gender diversity in computer science some data some experience some suggestions

The Shrinking Pipeline: 2002-03

Tracy Camp

Colorado School of Mines


Total b a b s degrees awarded u s

2002-03

1,348,503

1960-61

365,174

Total B.A./B.S. Degrees Awarded - U.S.

Tracy Camp

Colorado School of Mines


B a b s degrees to women u s

2002-03

57.5%

1960-61

38.5%

% B.A./B.S. Degrees to Women – U.S.

Tracy Camp

Colorado School of Mines


Gender diversity in computer science some data some experience some suggestions

% of B.A./B.S. Degrees Awarded

in Science and Engineering to Women

Source: U.S. Department of Education

Tracy Camp

Colorado School of Mines


Gender diversity in computer science some data some experience some suggestions

The Incredible Shrinking Pipeline

Percentage Change

in

Degrees Awarded to Women

(1983-84 to 2002-03)

Bio/Life Sciences increased by 32.3%

Physical Sciences increased by 49.3%

Engineering increased by 57.8%

Computer Science decreased by 27.2%

Tracy Camp

Colorado School of Mines


Number of cs majors plummeting

Number of CS Majors Plummeting

  • New CS majors at US CRA institutions

    15,958 (2000)

    7,952 (2005)

  • Bachelor degrees awarded at US CRA institutions

    14,227 (2003-04)

    11,808 (2004-05) – down 17% in one year!

  • Interest in CS major at ALL U.S. degree-granting institutions:

    • 70% drop 2000-2005

    • 80% drop (1998-2004) and

    • 93% since peak in 1982

See http://www.cra.org/CRN/articles/march06/vegso.html


Women s participation source sally ride science

Women’s ParticipationSource: Sally Ride Science

1970 conclusion: women were not interested in law, business, and medicine


Why so different for computing

Why so different for Computing?

  • IMAGE

  • Computer labs in middle/high schools

  • Bad or nonexistent counseling – interest in math and science ignored without “magnetic” attraction to computers

  • Experience – starting out behind

  • Confidence drops – interest drops


A small global snapshot

A Small Global Snapshot

Downward Trend

Australia

Finland

Germany

UK

Slight Downward Trend:

Mexico

Thailand

Tanzania

Slight Upward Trend

Nigeria

Turkey

Tracy Camp

Colorado School of Mines


Gender diversity in computer science some data some experience some suggestions

%Women Academic Staff USA: 12.4%

%Women Academic Staff NZ: 15.8%

% Women in Academic Rank

Academic Rank

Tracy Camp

Colorado School of Mines


Experience efforts to widen the pipe

Experience - efforts to widen the pipe

  • Anita Borg Institute for Women and Technology

    • Mission:

      • to increase the impact of women on all aspects of technology and

      • to increase the positive impact of technology on the world's women.

    • Systers – online community

    • Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing

    • Tech Leader Workshops

    • Women of Vision Awards in Innovation, Social Impact, and Leadership

    • Virtual Development Center


Virtual development center vdc

Virtual Development Center (VDC)

In 1999, Santa Clara University was one of three inaugural sites for the VDC (MIT, Purdue, and SCU)

VDC sites, now at 9 universities,

  • Involve the community in innovation workshops

    • Brainstorm about how technology can improve our lives

    • Technical and non-technical participants

    • Creating a safe, non-judgmental thinking space

  • Students work with the community in implementing some projects

  • Annual VDC Conference brings together all participants to share experience and results


Engaging students with the community to meet real needs is a win win win proposition

Engaging students with the community to meet real needs is a win-win-win proposition

  • Students Win

    • They get a “real” design experience

      • Deal with “real” clients

      • Design constraints arise from real-world concerns

  • Community clients Win

    • Access to free development of a needed project

    • Confidence in dealing with technology

  • Profession wins

    • Public learns more about what we do

    • A greater variety of young people become interested in pursuing computing


Results appeals to diverse population

Results – appeals to diverse population

  • The positive impact of these projects on society attracts disproportionately more of our young women and ethnic minorities in the field. At a time when our student body was 23% female and 15% underrepresented minorities:

    • 75% of students involved in community projects were female

    • 50% of students involved in community projects were of ethnic groups underrepresented in engineering


Scu virtual development center

SCU Virtual Development Center

  • VDC Supported Projects (99-05)

    • Icoordinate – family/work/friends calendar manager

    • PRaCVac – Programmable Remote Control Vacuum Cleaner

    • Viridia Fetal Monitor & design of Biomedical products

    • Remote Home Appliance Control project

    • Pioneering Women in Engineering

    • ANEW: Action Now in Employment for Women

    • KnowItAll: a software homework helper for grades 1-4

    • Virtual Garden

    • HomeSafe Keeper

    • SmartHome Energy Monitor

    • RFID tags for tracking kids in daycare


Scu virtual development center1

SCU Virtual Development Center

For several years we have worked with HomeSafe, a transitional community for survivors of domestic violence

Newer community partners include:

  • GAINS – Girls Achieving In Nontraditional Subjects

    A program of the Santa Clara Unified School District

  • Kelly Park Zoo

  • Santa Clara Senior Citizens Center

  • Kids On Campus – university daycare center


Other community based projects at scu

Other community-based projects at SCU

  • El Salvador projects –

    • solar water pump for Isla Zacatillo

    • Human powered utility vehicle

    • Brick oven design & seismic sustainability study for clay brick structures

    • Bamboo reinforced concrete

    • Hay bale house construction (wall anchorage)

  • EMT vehicle monitoring system

  • Projects aimed at assisting the disabled –

    • Music glove

    • Eye movement mouse control

    • Multi-adjustable wheelchair

    • Assistive technology


Other efforts at scu recruitment

Other efforts at SCU (recruitment)

  • SES – Summer Engineering Seminar (5-day residential program for junior and senior high school students)

  • GetSET – Get Science Engineering and Technology (one week residential program offered in summer to high school girls, in collaboration with SWE)

  • Educator Breakfasts – high school counselors, teachers, and administrators, and community leaders come to campus to hear about programs in the Engineering School

  • ACM/JETT Summer course for high school CS teachers

  • NYLF/Tech

  • Robotics competitions & high school outreach events


Other efforts at scu retention

Other efforts at SCU (retention)

  • MUSE – Mentoring Underrepresented Students in Engineering

  • FUSE – Frontiers for Underrepresented Students in Engineering (one week early move-in and study program for first year first generation students, also some programming throughout the year for these and continuing students)

  • School-sponsored annual dinner for women faculty and undergraduates

  • Big Sister Program – pairing returning students with first year students in same major

  • Student Organizations


Efforts at carnegie mellon

Efforts at Carnegie Mellon

  • Unlocking the Clubhouse -

    Jane Margolis and Allan Fisher

  • Research started in 1995 –

    • Hundreds of interviews, repeated every semester, male and female students, “about their histories with computing, interests, motivations, aspirations, reasons for majoring in CS, and experience in the undergraduate program”

    • Identified “crucial periods in students’ attachments to the field, and factors that contributed to, or inhibited their ability to succeed”

    • Problem areas identified included:

      • Experience gaps

      • Confidence doubts

      • Curriculum and pedagogy

      • Peer culture

“Transforming the Culture of Computing at Carnegie Mellon”

Lenore Blum


Carnegie mellon university

Carnegie Mellon University


Carnegie mellon university1

Carnegie Mellon University

Tracy Camp

Colorado School of Mines


How did this happen

How did this happen?

  • Summer Institute for AP CS teachers –

    • Included talking to teachers about the gender gap and what they could do about it

  • Admissions – Raj Reddy said he wanted to attract the students “who demonstrate potential to be world leaders and visionaries in computer science”

  • Community Building – [email protected] Advisory Council

    • Big Sister program, other events

    • Consulting on curriculum

    • Outreach activities

    • Information dissemination

      • Website - http://women.cs.cmu.edu/

      • Grace Hopper 2000

      • [email protected] Roadshow


What can you do

What can you do?

For suggestions, try:

J. Sanders

Lifting the Barriers: 600 strategies that really work

J. McGrath Cohoon, SIGCSE article

“Recruiting and Retaining Women in Undergraduate Computing Majors” –

19 recommendations

NCWIT Inaugural Practices Workshop

“Top Ten” ideas – from Workshop Notes

Tracy Camp

Colorado School of Mines


Gender diversity in computer science some data some experience some suggestions

The Name of the Game is:

Recruit

AND

Retain

Tracy Camp

Colorado School of Mines


But first

BUT FIRST…

Talk with your current students (and past students if possible)

  • What attracted them to the program?

  • What makes them stay?

  • What makes them consider leaving?

  • What do they think of the environment?

    • In classes

    • In labs

    • In extracurricular groups/activities

  • How do they think you can attract and keep more women and minority students?


Recruitment

Recruitment

1. Meet computing teachers of feeder H.S.

a. The “Geek Factor” (myth)

b. The “Magnetic Attraction”

c. “Computing with a Purpose”

d. Jobs, jobs, and more jobs

e. Importance of encouragement

Tracy Camp

Colorado School of Mines


Recruitment1

Recruitment

2. Advertise CS in feeder high schools

a. Posters with double diversity

b. Job advertisements

Tracy Camp

Colorado School of Mines


Gender diversity in computer science some data some experience some suggestions

Tracy Camp Colorado School of Mines


Recruitment2

Recruitment

3. Presentations to H.S. Seniors

a. Change image (“Geek Factor”)

b. Include role models

c. “Computing with a Purpose”

d. Jobs, jobs, and more jobs

History classes, women’s sports teams

Tracy Camp

Colorado School of Mines


Gender diversity in computer science some data some experience some suggestions

The [email protected] Outreach Roadshow: Diversifying the Images of Computer Science

http://women.cs.cmu.edu/


Retention

Survive 1st year Survive program

Retention

1. Evaluate CS1 and CS2

a. Make CS1 your best class

b. Assignments with purpose

c. Consider faculty research seminars

d. Consider media computation focus

Tracy Camp

Colorado School of Mines


Retention1

Retention

2. Create multiple paths to become major

a. CS1 section for experienced CS majors

b. CS1 section for inexperienced CS majors

c. CS1 course for non-majors (recruit)

Tracy Camp

Colorado School of Mines


Retention2

Retention

3. Create a welcoming culture

a. Give gender-equity training

Imposter Syndrome

  • Abilities vs. Luck

  • Hard Exam vs. Abilities

    b. Provide mentoring, encouragement

    c. Create professional community

“Everything bad happens worse”

for minority members

Tracy Camp

Colorado School of Mines


Post clubhouse reflections allan fisher november 2005

Post-Clubhouse ReflectionsAllan Fisher, November 2005

If you don’t ...

  • have a leadership-level commitment to institutional and cultural change ...

  • make it a high priority ...

  • know your numbers ...

  • have a champion (or two) ...

Tracy Camp

Colorado School of Mines


Post clubhouse reflections allan fisher

Post-Clubhouse ReflectionsAllan Fisher

Then you won’t ...

  • escape the trap of well-meaning inaction.

  • get results.

Tracy Camp

Colorado School of Mines


Gender diversity in computer science some data some experience some suggestions

Resources

ACM'S Committee on

Women in Computing

www.acm.org/women

www.anitaborg.org

www.cra.org/Activities/craw


Gender diversity in computer science some data some experience some suggestions

ACM-W Ambassadors

Canada

South Africa

Turkey

(Watch thisspace)

Australia

United Kingdom

Germany

Pakistan

India


Gender diversity in computer science some data some experience some suggestions

Resources

http://www.ncwit.org


Resources

Resources

Athena Project – Scientific Women’s Academic Network


Gender diversity in computer science some data some experience some suggestions

Resources (cont.)

Inroads (SIGCSE journal)

June 2002

Pale and Male: 19th Century Design

in a 21st Century World

What do you say? Open Letters to Women Considering a CS Major

R&R Women in Undergraduate Computing Majors

People Who Make a Difference: Mentors and Role Models

Priming the Pipeline

Tracy Camp

Colorado School of Mines


Gender diversity in computer science some data some experience some suggestions

Special Issues on Women in Computing

Inroads (ACM SIGCSE journal), June 2002

Communications of the ACM

November 1990 and January 1995

IEEE Annals on the History of Computing

Fall 1996 and October 2003

Pathways

CD

Tracy Camp

Colorado School of Mines


Top ten ideas for academia source ncwit inaugural practices workshop

“Top Ten” Ideas (for Academia)Source: NCWIT Inaugural Practices Workshop

  • Understand your system; know your numbers

  • Build a powerful team

  • Listen to students

  • Focus on the bottlenecks

  • Catalyze and support a women’s community


Top ten ideas for academia source ncwit inaugural practices workshop1

“Top Ten” Ideas (for Academia)Source: NCWIT Inaugural Practices Workshop

6.Broaden the culture

7. Reach out to the feeder community

8. Watch the student experience like a hawk.

9. Adapt to changing times.

10. Remember the law of educational diversity


Questions

QUESTIONS???


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