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Computer Architecture Principles Dr. Mike Frank. CDA 5155 Summer 2003 Module #4 Market & Technology Trends. Upcoming Material. H&P chapter 1 - Fundamentals: Performance, quantitative design. Technology trends, 1st-order scaling laws Cost, yield, and fault-tolerance

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Computer architecture principles dr mike frank

Computer Architecture PrinciplesDr. Mike Frank

CDA 5155Summer 2003

Module #4

Market & Technology Trends


Upcoming material

Upcoming Material

  • H&P chapter 1 - Fundamentals: Performance, quantitative design.

    • Technology trends, 1st-order scaling laws

    • Cost, yield, and fault-tolerance

    • Performance measurement and benchmarks

    • Quantitative design

    • Generalized Amdahl’s law

  • Next: Begin ISA design (ch. 2).


H p chapter 1 fundamentals of computer design

H&P Chapter 1:Fundamentals of Computer Design

  • 1.1. Introduction

  • 1.2. The Changing Face of Computing

  • 1.3. Technology Trends

  • 1.4. Cost, Price, and Their Trends

  • 1.5. Measuring & Reporting Performance

  • 1.6. Quantitative Princ. of Computer Design

  • 1.7. Performance & Price-Performance

  • 1.8. Power Consumption & Efficiency

  • 1.9-1.11 End material


1 1 introduction

1.1. Introduction

Key points to remember (from lecture 1):

  • General Moore’s Law trend in recent decades:

    • Computer performance increases @ ~50% per year

      • Reflects improvements in raw Si transistor ops/sec/chip

  • Continuing architectural innovations generally required to harness improving raw parallel HW performance for faster performance on old serial ISAs.

    • Eventually, serial programming models may hit a wall.

  • Someday, different programming models may be introduced that scale up more easily with technology improvements.


Microprocessor performance trends

Raw technologyperformance

(gate ops/sec/chip):Up ~55%/year

Microprocessor Performance Trends


1 2 the changing face of computing

1.2. The Changing Face of Computing

Key points:

  • Historical evolution of industry dominance:

    • mainframes  minicomputers  PCs

  • Now, 3 distinct major markets: desktop, server, embedded

    • Different requirements for each

    • Each uses commodity microprocessors

  • Task of the computer designer

    • ISA, organization, microarchitecture, hardware


Major market segments

Major Market Segments

  • Desktop Computing

    • ~$1,000 PCs to $10,000 Workstations

    • Critical metric: Price-performance (esp. graphics)

      • performance per unit price, drives leading-edge

  • Servers

    • ~$10K to $1M

    • Availability, scalability & throughput critical

  • Embedded Systems

    • $1 (toy) to $100,000 (network router)

    • Real-time, application-specific performance

    • Small memory footprint, low power


Embedded solutions

Embedded Solutions

  • Common solutions for custom hardware:

    • ASIC (Application-Specific Integrated Circuit)

      • Custom VLSI chips integrated from standard cells

    • FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array)

      • Custom circuits dynamically loaded from firmware

  • Many embedded systems are mostly just SW running on one or more of:

    • On-chip embedded processor core

      • e.g. MIPS, ARM, etc.

    • COTS embedded processor

      • Commercial Off-The-Shelf, usu. a packaged chip

    • DSPs (Digital Signal Processor)

      • A microprocessor specialized for signal-processing tasks


2 nd edition fig 1 2 replace w 3 rd ed fig 1 4

2nd edition, fig. 1.2 (replace w. 3rd ed., fig. 1.4)


1 3 technology trends

1.3. Technology Trends

Key points:

  • Different rates of improvement in different components affect architectural decisions.

    • E.g., electrical buses vs. optical switches on board

  • Scaling of transistors, wires, power

    • Local connectivity, low power increasingly favored


Computer architecture principles dr mike frank

(Source: ITRS 2000 Update)


Technology scaling notation

Technology Scaling: Notation

  • Historically, device feature length scales have decreased by ~12%/year.

    • So: feature length 0.88year : 

    • 1/length (1/0.88)year1.14 year : (up 14%/year)

  • Meanwhile, typical die diameters have increased by ~2.3%/year.

    • Diameter  1.023year : 

    • 1/Diameter  


Some 1st order semiconductor scaling laws

Some 1st-order Semiconductor Scaling Laws

  • Voltages V (due to punch-through effects)

  • Long-term:

    • Temperature T? (prevents leakage)

  • Resistance:

    • Fixed-shape wire: R  l/wt  / = 

    • Thin cross-chip wire: R / = 

  • Capacitance:

    • Fixed-shape structure: C  lw/s  / = 

    • Per unit wire length: C  1 (constant)

    • Cross-chip wire: C  

    • Per unit area: C  1/s  


Charges currents

Charges & Currents

  • Charges & fields:

    • Charge on a structure: Q = CV  

    • Surface charge density: Q/A  1

    • Electric field strengths: E = V/l  1

  • Currents:

    • Peak current densities: J = E/  1

    • Peak current in a wire: I = JA  

    • Channel-crossing times: t=l/v   (v  200 kmph)

    • Current in an on-transistor: I = Q/t  / = 

    • Effective on-resistance: R = V/I  / = 1

Or faster w.strained Si

5-25 kΩ typical


Delay scaling

Delay Scaling

  • Charging time delay t  RC :

    • Through fixed shape conductor: RC   = 1

    • Via cross-die thin wire: RC  · = up 50%/yr!

    • Through a transistor: RC  1· = 

  • Implications:

    • Transistors increasingly faster than long thin wires.

    • Even becoming faster than fixed-shape wires!

    • Local communication among chip elements is becoming increasingly favored!


Performance scaling

Performance scaling

  • Performance characteristics:

    • Clock frequency for small, transistor-delay-dominated local structures: f  1/t   (up 14%/yr)

    • Transistor density (per area): d = 1/ = 

    • Chip area: A  

    • Total raw performance (local transitions / chip / time): R = fd A =  = 1.55year

      • Up 55%/year!

      • Nearly doubles every 18 months (Moore’s Law).


Energy and power

Energy and Power

  • Energy:

    • Energy on a given structure: E CV2  2 = 3

    • Energy per-area: EA CV2/A 3/2 = 

    • Energy densities: EA/thickness  /  1

    • Per-area power: PA = EAf   = 1

    • Power per die: P = PAA   (up ~5%/year)


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