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A Brief History of the English Monarchy. Before the Tudors…. Prior to 1066 - British mainland was defined by the feudal system -Lesser kings from different Scandinavian regions were vying for power for centuries. Before the Tudors….

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A brief history of the english monarchy

A Brief History of the English Monarchy

Before the tudors
Before the Tudors…

  • Prior to 1066 - British mainland was defined by the feudal system

    -Lesser kings from different Scandinavian regions were

    vying for power for centuries

Before the tudors1
Before the Tudors…

  • 1066 - William of Normandy is victorious at the Battle of Hastings

  • For us, TWO major results:

    1) Consolidates power over the region

    2) Imposes French culture

Before the tudors2
Before the Tudors…

  • 1087 - William dies (and the corpse…)

    -His death = MASSIVE competition for the crown

  • England basically at war with itself off and on until 1485

Before the tudors3
Before the Tudors…

  • 1450-1485 – The War of the Roses

    -A thirty-five year power struggle for between the House of Lancaster and the House of York

  • 1485 - Henry of Lancaster wins and the conflict ends

Before the tudors4
Before the Tudors…

  • 1486 - A politically crafty Henry extends an olive branch by marrying Elizabeth of York (daughter of the enemy)

  • Their marriage unifies England

    • He becomes Henry VII

    • Family is known as the House of Tudor

Henry vii
Henry VII

  • Henry has two focuses

    during his reign:

    1) Consolidating Power

    2) Acquiring vast amounts of money for the crown

    *** Henry’s efforts build the foundation for Britain’s rise as a world power

Henry viii
Henry VIII

  • 1509 - Henry VII dies

    -His second son, Henry VIII, ascends throne

  • Henry VIII’s priority is maintaining, strengthening, and securing the kingdom his father established

    *** What is the main ingredient in this recipe for success? A MALE HEIR!

Henry viii1
Henry VIII

  • At 19, Henry VIII marries

    Catherine of Aragon

    (a Spanish queen)

  • They are married for about 20 years

    -Despite multiple pregnancies, they have only one surviving child…

    …a daughter (Mary Tudor)

Henry viii2
Henry VIII

  • Henry desperately needs a son to secure his kingdom…

    … So he makes a BIG decision, and life in England becomes really interesting…

Henry viii3
Henry VIII

  • Henry decides to “rid himself” of Catherine and try again with Anne Boleyn

  • The Catholic Church did not recognize divorce, so he had two options:

    1) Execute her – definitely lead to war with Spain

    2) Divorce her – possibly lead to war with Spain, and definitely lead to excommunication

Henry viii4
Henry VIII

  • Henry chose divorce, but since he could not rule as an excommunicated king, he wisely first divorced himself and England from the Catholic Church

Henry viii5
Henry VIII

  • 1530s - Through massive legislation, Henry and Parliament refuted the Pope’s authority and severed England’s ties with Rome

  • The Anglican church (Protestant) is established, and Henry acts as its head

  • He “sold” this concept to his subjects in three ways:

    1) Emphasized the Divine Right of Kings

    2) Make the Pope out to be fraud.

    3) Sacked monasteries, churches and cathedrals throughout the country

Henry viii6
Henry VIII

  • And now back to the business of begetting an heir…

  • Henry does marry Anne Boleyn, but she gives birth to another daughter (Elizabeth)

  • Henry = Not Happy. Anne = Beheaded.

Henry viii7
Henry VIII

A list of Henry’s wives and their demise:

  • Catherine of Aragon – divorced

    -daughter, Mary Tudor

    2) Anne Boleyn – beheaded

    -daughter, Elizabeth

    3) Jane Seymour – died

    -son, Edward

    4) Anne of Cleves - divorced

    5) Catherine Howard – beheaded

    6) Catherine Parr - survived

Henry viii8
Henry VIII

  • 1547 – Henry VIII dies

    Historically, the most important decision he made was to divorce Catherine of Aragon

    ***Henry’s decision to split from the Catholic Church was based solely on politics, but it had a massive impact on not only England’s history, but also the social, political, and religious climate around the world

Edward vi
Edward VI

  • 1547 - Edward VI (son Henry VIII and Jane Seymour) ascends the throne at the ripe old age of 9

  • During his reign, he absolutely

    reinforces his father’s break from the

    Catholic Church

  • Why? If he doesn’t, he is considered an illegitimate child and likely faces execution

Edward vi1
Edward VI

  • He’s a sickly child, and doesn’t last long…

  • 1533 – Edward dies

    (without an heir)

Lady jane grey
Lady Jane Grey

  • Once Henry’s only male heir had died, the power struggle began

  • Edward’s will forbade his sisters from succeeding him, so Lady Jane Grey, a cousin, is placed on the throne

  • Her ascension is deemed unacceptable by her political enemies, and her reign lasts only nine days (she is beheaded)

  • http://fineartamerica.com/images-medium/the-execution-of-lady-jane-grey-hippolyte-delaroche-.jpg

Mary tudor
Mary Tudor

  • Mary Tudor (daughter of

    Henry VIII and Catherine of

    Aragon) assumes the throne

  • Before she ever took power, her reign was viewed as “problematic”

  • Why? Mary is thoroughly Catholic (born into Catholic marriage, raised Catholic)

Mary tudor1
Mary Tudor

  • Mary’s reign was defined by an ideological religious

    quest to undo everything her father had done

  • One of her first acts was to marry Phillip of


  • This was a blatant and bold political move for several reasons:

    1) Reaffirmed her mother’s reputation/honor

    2) Reestablished ties between Spain and

    England (Spain is powerhouse at this


    3) Sent a clear message that she supported Catholicism, not Anglicanism

Mary tudor2
Mary Tudor

  • A strong, stubborn leader, Mary legislated the “undoing” of the English reformation

  • Earned the nickname “Bloody Mary” for the following:

    1) Killed about 300 religious dissenters who refused to convert

    2) Imprisoned her sister Elizabeth

    3) Forcibly moved England back to Catholicism

Mary tudor3
Mary Tudor

1558 - Mary dies, and without an heir

  • Side note: She was so psychologically desperate to produce an heir, Mary had several “phantom” pregnancies during which she actually stopped menstruating and physically appeared pregnant

Elizabeth i
Elizabeth I

  • 1558 – Elizabeth I (daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn) ascends the throne

  • In a Catholic England, she could not lawfully reign because she

    would be considered an

    illegitimate child

  • So…

Elizabeth i1
Elizabeth I

  • …Elizabeth sets about undoing everything Mary did in order to restore the Protestant England her father established

  • The “Virgin Queen” reigns until 1603 (45 years), during which:

    -England experienced its own renaissance

    -England became the world’s strongest naval power

Elizabeth i2
Elizabeth I

  • This is the world Shakespeare was born into (1564)

    -Religion and politics went hand in hand, and both

    seemed arbitrary

  • Elizabeth I was an

    active and generous

    patron of the theatre

    -Had her own acting

    company called

    the “Queen's Men”

Elizabeth i3
Elizabeth I

  • Elizabeth stood against the Puritans who wished to close down the theatres

    -Without her support the Elizabethan theatres would not have survived

  • 1590s - Court performances by acting companies became popular and Shakespeare's company was selected more than any other

    *** Shakespeare does not refer to his queen very often, but he certainly benefited from her love of the theater

Elizabeth i4
Elizabeth I

  • As you read Hamlet, consider the social, political, and religious turmoil the people of England had experienced in the past 50 years

  • Keep watch for Shakespeare’s dealing with such issues embedded in the text!

History rocks
History ROCKS

  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_English_monarchs

    -List of all the English monarchs; pictures

  • http://www.britroyals.com/tudor.htm

    -Tudor family tree

  • http://tudorswiki.sho.com/page/Historical+TIMELINE+of+the+Tudors

    -European timeline during the Tudor reign

  • http://tudorswiki.sho.com/page/SIGNATURES+of+The+Tudors

    -Tudor signatures; awesome!