ENERGY RESOURCES
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ENERGY RESOURCES. FELIX RIZK. ENERGY is the capacity to do WORK. LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY. In a closed system, energy is not created or destroyed, but simply changed from one kind of energy to another kind.

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ENERGY RESOURCES

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Energy resources

ENERGY RESOURCES

FELIX RIZK


Energy is the capacity to do work

ENERGY is the capacity to do WORK


Law of conservation of energy

LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

  • In a closed system, energy is not created or destroyed, but simply changed from one kind of energy to another kind.

  • Example, Nuclear energy in the Sun is changed into Light energy and Heat energy, some of which reaches the Earth and other planets (closed system) in our solar system.

  • Gasoline (chemical energy) in your car changes into Mechanical energy and Heat energy.

  • Heat energy is the least efficient (?) form of energy.


Law of conservation is associated with energy efficiency ee

Law of Conservation is associated with ENERGY EFFICIENCY (EE).

  • EE is the actual fraction of energy in a system (Ex., a car, or a light bulb) that actually does the intended or target WORK.

  • Example, 200 joules/1000 joules = 20% efficient. A flourescent bulb is 20% efficient, which means that only 20% of the electricity supplied to the lamp actually goes toward generating “light.” The rest is wasted as Heat. Incandescent bulbs are only 5% efficient. Best EE for combustion engines is 25%.


Energy resources

ENERGY RESOURCES

  • All Energy Resources: renewable vs nonrenewable forms. Together, there are also 3 traditional groups:


Fossil fuel formation

FOSSIL FUEL FORMATION


Conditions for petroleum natural gas formation

Conditions for Petroleum/Natural Gas Formation

  • Large numbers of tiny marine organism die suddenly.

  • Their remains are quickly covered/buried by huge amounts of sediments on the ocean/sea floor to cut off oxygen. Why?

  • They are “baked/cooked” slowly for thousands of years within the sediments, which will become the reservoir rocks.

  • Various types of Geologic traps are necessary to concentrate this oily/gassy remains into an ore deposit. Why?


Fossil fuel issues

Fossil Fuel Issues

  • A gallon of refined gasoline represents 100 tons of plant matter (40 acres of wheat).

  • 30% of all artificial CO2 is from burning petroleum products. Burning 1 gallon gasoline produces 20 lbs CO2. Coal burning contributes 35% of all artificial greenhouse gases, & 70% SO2, 30% NO.

  • Food chain contamination from oil spills.

  • Problems associated with strip mining coal.

  • US (5% of global population) is the only country that uses (25%) more global energy (90% are fossil fuels) than it produces (20%).


Various examples of geologic traps

Various examples of Geologic Traps


Nuclear energy

Nuclear Energy

  • Based on Einstein’s E=mc2scientist discovered that matter in the nucleus of atoms can become pure energy by:

  • a) fission or by b) fusion.

  • 1000g of Uranium = 16 tons of coal; 1000g of Pu-239 = 1000 tons of crude oil/petroleum.

  • Uranium is the fuel used in nuclear power plants. U-238and U-234 are nonfissionable; U-235 is naturally fissionable (<1% in nature). Increasing U-235 to 3% is called Enriched Uranium. Pu-239 is also fissionable.

  • U.S. uses only Burner Reactors; France uses only BreederReactors.

  • Problems: harmful radiation, biomagnification, nuclear waste disposal, terrorism, decommiossioned nuclear plants (110 in U.S.).


Nuclear power plants

Nuclear Power Plants


A typical burner reactor

A typical Burner Reactor


Nuclear fission of u 235

Nuclear Fission of U-235


Controlled nuclear chain reaction

Controlled Nuclear Chain Reaction


Nuclear meltdown event

Nuclear Meltdown Event


Area of contamination from the chenorbyl nuclear accident

Area of contamination from the Chenorbyl Nuclear Accident


Radioactive waste disposal a major drawback to nuclear energy

High Level Radioactive Waste – most dangerous form of nuclear waste:

Radioactive substances with high doses of radiation over short time intervals; or

Radioactive waste with low doses of radiation over long intervals of time.

In the US no official policy on disposal. Yucca Mtn. Approved in 2003.

Low Level Radioactive wastes. These are:

Radioactive substances producing small doses of radiation over short time intervals (decades).

Radioactive Waste Disposal – a major drawback to nuclear energy.


Nuclear waste disposal

Nuclear waste Disposal


Geothermal energy

GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

  • The harvesting of the natural heat from the interior of the earth to heat buildings and generate electricity.

  • Possible only in active volcanic areas – Hawaii, Japan, California, Iceland, Italy.

  • California produces 6% of its energy from geothermal sources.

  • Geothermal energy use will grow at 10% every year in the 21st century. Cost competitive with fossil fuels.


Example of geothermal energy being used in iceland

Example of Geothermal Energy being used in Iceland


Hydropower is indirect solar energy plus gravitational energy

ADVANTAGES:

Large quantity of energy produced.

Energy efficient.

Long life span (>100 years).

Used for flood control/irrigation.

No greenhouse gas emissions/acid rain.

Reservoir can be used for recreation.

DISADVANTAGES:

Costly initially.

Destroys large tracts of natural habitats.

Initial biomass decays produces greenhouse gases.

Decreases fish harvest/migration, and silt/sediment supply downstream.

Large amounts of consumed water in hot climates.

Provides habitat for water-borne diseases.

Hydropower is indirect solar energy plus gravitational energy.


Active solar energy one of the alternate energy resources

Active Solar Energy- one of the Alternate Energy Resources.


Producing electricity by active solar energy technology

ADVANTAGES

Quick installation.

Easy to expand.

Can last 20-40 years.

Work on cloudy days.

No greenhouse gas

Low land use, if on roofs.

DISADVANTAGES

Need access to Sun.

Low energy efficiency.

Need battery storage systems.

DC must be converted to AC.

Large scale use needs extensive land areas.

Producing Electricity by Active Solar Energy Technology


A typical photovoltaic cell design

A typical Photovoltaic Cell Design


Microsolar cells

Microsolar Cells


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