egypt and the arab israeli conflict
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Egypt and the Arab-Israeli conflict. Wars between states. The Basic Situation. Egypt controlled the Gaza Strip and shared a long border with Israel Jordan integrated the West Bank into itself Syria shared a short but poorly defined border with Israel

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the basic situation
The Basic Situation
  • Egypt controlled the Gaza Strip and shared a long border with Israel
  • Jordan integrated the West Bank into itself
  • Syria shared a short but poorly defined border with Israel
  • Egypt is the “hegemonic” regional power threatened (in different ways) by Israel, Syria, and Saudi Arabia
1952 revolution
1952 Revolution
  • LAND REFORM IN SEPTEMBER 1952 AND ARMY’S PROMISE TO LIQUIDATE FEUDALISM AND COLONIALISM
  • COLLAPSE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT MONARCHY AND CLOSEST ALLY OF BRITAIN IN THE REGION
nasser searches for independence
Nasser Searches for independence
  • 1954 – Nasser at Bandung
  • 1955 – Czech arms deal; rejection of the Baghdad Pact
  • 1956 – Nationalization of Suez Canal
1956 war
1956 War
  • October 29 – Israel invades Sinai
  • November 5 – Anglo-French invasion
  • December 22 – Anglo-French withdrawal
  • Nasser wins a dramatic political victory despite military defeat
republicanism victorious
Republicanism victorious
  • February 1958 – creation of United Arab Republic
  • July 1958 – the Iraqi revolution
  • July 1961 – Egypt moves further toward socialism
and the turning point
And the turning point
  • September 1961 – Syria withdraws from UAR
  • 1962-1967 – the “Arab Cold War”
  • 1962 – the republican coup in Yemen and “Nasser’s Vietnam”
the problem for nasser
The Problem for Nasser
  • Challenges to his leadership
    • Fatah incursions into Israel
    • Syrian claims to revolutionary leadership
    • The domestic threat of the Muslim Brothers
    • Saudi opposition to Arab nationalism
      • Islamic or Arab solidarity?
      • Oil as a factor in international politics
throwing the dice 1967
Throwing the Dice - 1967
  • May 14 1967 – Egyptian troops into Sinai
  • May 16 – Request for UNEF to leave
  • May 21 – Closure of Straits of Tiran to Israeli-bound shipping
  • May 30 – King Husayn of Jordan signs a joint defense pact
slide16
War
  • Israeli war strategy makes waiting impossible
  • Fighting broke out with Israeli attacks on Egyptian air bases, obliterating the airforce
  • With no air cover the Egyptian ground forces—mainly conscripts—were destroyed
  • Within 6 days Israel had occupied Sinai, the West Bank, and Golan
outcome
Outcome
  • Egypt now had renewed foreign occupation
  • Jordan had lost its most populous and productive region
  • Israel emerged as the regional strategic power
  • Israel now controlled all of the territory of Mandatory Palestine
collapse of the arab states
Collapse of the Arab states
  • Nasser briefly resigns
  • A new leader emerges in Damascus
  • The Khartoum declaration
    • No negotiation
    • No withdrawal without recognition of Palestinians
    • Resolution of Egyptian-Saudi conflicts on Saudi terms
space for the plo
Space for the PLO
  • The military defeat of the Arab states opens the door to the PLO
  • Strengthens Palestinian resolve not to trust the Arab states
  • The Palestinian issue becomes a more important symbol for Arab states even as they realize how dangerous it is
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