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Lecture 24 : Sensory trade offs. 11/30/09. Opportunities at Shady Grove Adventist Hospital. Student scribes to work in emergency room If interested, contact Michele Liscum Scribes America [email protected] Final projects next week. NO assignment due this week

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opportunities at shady grove adventist hospital
Opportunities at Shady Grove Adventist Hospital
  • Student scribes to work in emergency room
  • If interested, contact
final projects next week
Final projects next week
  • NO assignment due this week
  • Next week presentations
    • Monday and Wednesday
  • Send me your powerpoint by noon on the day of your talk
  • Final projects due on Wednesday
questions
Questions
  • What are the trade off between senses?
  • When are senses lost? Is this related to gain in other senses?
vision
Vision
  • Can have independent gain and loss of spectral sensitivities
    • Lose if no longer need
    • Gain if new need arises
slide8

LWS

Lamprey LWS

RH2

Lamprey RHB

RH1

Lamprey RHA

SWS2

Lamprey S2

SWS1

Lamprey S1

slide10

RH2

SWS1

Monotreme

SWS2

Davies et al 2007 Platypus

SWS2

marine mammals
Marine mammals
  • Evolved from land mammals
  • Land mammals have two cone opsins
    • SWS1
    • M/LWS
placental mammals
Placental mammals

X = loss SWS1

X

X

X

marine mammals1
Marine mammals

Unique gene losses in each lineage - separate events

human red and green opsins

A

F

A

530 nm

560 nm

S

Y

T

F261Y=+10 nm

A269T=+14 nm

A164S=+2 nm

Human red and green opsins
lws opsin sequences in primates
LWS opsin sequences in primates

+2 +10 +14

164 261 269

Human560 S Y T

Human530 A F A

Capuchin563 S Y T

Capuchin550 A F T

Capuchin535 A F A

Marmoset563 S Y T

Marmoset556 AY T

Marmoset543 AYA

Combos of same sites in MWS and LWS of all OW monkeys

lws opsin sequences
LWS opsin sequences

+2 +10 +14

164 261 269

Human560 S Y T

Human530 A F A

Capuchin563 S Y T

Capuchin550 A F T

Capuchin535 A F A

Marmoset563 S Y T

Marmoset556 AY T

Marmoset543 AYA

Alleles

Allele = different form of a gene which can vary in a group / population

slide19

Duplication event which caused tandem array of red and green genes to form

OW

NW

Duplicated about 30 MYa

slide20

Tandem array in OW

Human

Gorilla

Chimpanzee

Marmoset

Capuchin

Howler

OW

NW monkeys - alleles

NW

most nw monkeys
Most NW monkeys

LWS SWS1

Males XY

3 possible dichromats

Females XX

3 possible dichromats (R/R, O/O or G/G) and

3 possible trichromats (R/O, R/G or O/G)

allele tree
Allele tree

Old world gene duplication occurred 30 Mya

5-8% divergent

Howler monkey duplication is more recent

2.7% different

why need trichromacy
Why need trichromacy
  • Following slides from talk by Jim Bowmaker, University College London
slide24

Why trichromacy? Why two ‘LWS’ cone types? Dichromacy with a single LWS and an SWS1 cone type gives no red-green discrimination.

slide25

Trichromacy with two ‘LWS’ cone types and an SWS1 cone gives red-green discrimination.

Ripe fruit and young, more reddish leaves can be detected against the dappled green foliage.

slide29

Gelada, Ethiopia Theropithecus gelada

Vervet monkey, East Africa Cercopithecus aethiops

Trichromacy enables new color signaling in primates.

vomeronasal receptor pathway
Vomeronasal receptor pathway

G protein

V1R, V2R

Phospholipase C

Trp2

Humans, great apes and OW monkeys do not have functioning VNO. Why?

trp2 is knocked out in ow primates
Trp2 is knocked out in OW primates

+ = open reading frame s = stop codon

vomeronasal receptor pathway1
Vomeronasal receptor pathway

G protein

V1R, V2R

Phospholipase C

Trp2

Humans, great apes and OW monkeys do not have functioning VNO. Why?

coincidence in time
Coincidence in time
  • Trp2 gene lost 23-35 Mya
  • Lost V1R gene about 24 MY
  • Opsin gene duplication was <35 MY
  • Primates use sexual skin swelling to indicate ovulatory status
    • If can use vision to determine ovulatory status then don’t need pheromones to communicate
relationship between vision and vno
Relationship between vision and VNO?

Human Trichromat No VNO

OW primates Trichromat No VNO

NW primates Dichromat VNO

Howler Trichromat ??

Mammals Dichromat VNO

Birds Tetrachromat No VNO

if vision displaces vno
If vision displaces VNO
  • Expect howler to also have lost VNO pathway
    • However, they find TRP2 gene is intact in howlers
  • Howlers also show behavioral evidence that use VNO
    • Scent marking
method
Method
  • Used degenerate primers to amplify suite of OR genes
    • Examine 18 primate species
    • Sequence 100 genes
    • Calc % pseudo
  • Test method on human and mouse OR genes to see if identify diverse set
test in human and mouse
Test in human and mouse

Human

Mouse

Actual #

This method

gains and losses
Gains and losses
  • Do seem to be some trade offs
  • Will any of you find evidence for this in the species you are examining?
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