Psychopharmacology by sue henderson
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Psychopharmacology by Sue Henderson. Terminology. National Health Survey 04-05. Decline in hospital stay. Key points about drugs:. Drugs alter or mimic body functions (but do not create new functions) Drugs have multiple actions (which may or may not be desired).

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Psychopharmacology by Sue Henderson

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Psychopharmacology by sue henderson

Psychopharmacology by Sue Henderson


Terminology

Terminology


National health survey 04 05

National Health Survey 04-05


Decline in hospital stay

Decline in hospital stay


Key points about drugs

Key points about drugs:

Drugs alter or mimic body functions

(but do not create new functions)

Drugs have multiple actions

(which may or may not be desired).

Most psychotropic drugs interact with the body via receptors.


Development of a drug

Development of a drug

2. “Gee it’s wonderful. It’s simple & cures magically”

1. “Another one of his fool ideas”

4. Used carefully in selected cases it is the best therapy for “X” disease.

3. Death from “X”. “It’s a poison! I wouldn’t give it to a dog!”


Pharmacokinetics study of movement of drug through the body

Pharmacokinetics (Study of movement of drug through the body)

  • Absorption

  • Distribution

  • Metabolism

  • Elimination


Pharmacokinetics study of movement of drug through the body1

Pharmacokinetics (Study of movement of drug through the body)

Absorption: The rate at which a drug gets out of the G.I. tract & into the blood stream.

Distribution: process of drug molecules leaving the blood stream to reach tissues & organs.


Body membranes affecting drug distribution capillaries

Body membranes affecting drug distribution: Capillaries

  • General body capillaries allow drug molecules to pass freely into the surrounding tissue.


Blood brain barrier bbb

Glial cells

Capillary wall

Blood Brain Barrier BBB

  • Brain capillaries have a dense walled structure & are surrounded by glial cells (lipid). This prevents many drug molecules from entering the surrounding tissue.


Termination of drug action

Termination of drug action.

Metabolism: Detoxification or breakdown. Enzymes (Cytochrome P450) in liver cells transform drug from fat soluble to water soluble.

Elimination: removal of drug from body. Most via kidney’s, lungs & G.I. Tract (small amounts)


Pharmacodynamics how drugs act on body

Pharmacodynamics. How drugs act on body

Drug receptor interaction: drug concentrated at the site of action.

Effect (body responses): Therapeutic effects, intoxication & side effects.

The effect will vary depending on age, gender & health of person, plus the route, frequency of use, duration of use and the environment in which the drug is consumed.


Mechanism of action

Mechanism of action

  • Blockade of receptors

  • Receptor sensitivity changes

  • Reuptake inhibition

  • Interference with storage vesicles

  • Pre-curser chain interference

  • Synaptic enzyme inhibition

  • Second messenger cascade


Normal neurotransmission

Neurotransmitter

Re-uptake pump

Receptor

Axon

Dendrite

Synapse

Presynaptic storage vesicles

Normal neurotransmission

Dendrite


Agonist mimic

Agonist = Mimic


Agonist facilitate binding

Agonist = Facilitate binding


Blocking antagonist

Blocking = Antagonist


Up regulation

Up-regulation


Down regulation

Down-regulation


All 6 major neurotransmitters have been shown to influence each other s function in the brain

Acetylcholine

Serotonin

GABA

Glutamate

Dopamine

Noradrenaline

All 6 major neurotransmitters have been shown to influence each other’s function in the brain.


Normal

Dopamine

Noradrenaline

Serotonin

=

Acetylcholine

Normal


Depression

Acetylcholine

Noradrenaline& Serotonin

Depression


Mania

Glutamate, Noradrenaline Dopamine

Acetylcholine

Mania


Schizophrenia

Dopamine

Acetylcholine

Schizophrenia


Parkinson s

Parkinson’s

Acetylcholine

Dopamine


Dementia

Dopamine

Norepinephrine

Serotonin

Acetylcholine

Dementia


References

References

  • Bryant, B. J., Knights, K. M., & Salerno, E. (2002). Pharmacology for health professionals. Marrickville, N.S.W.: Elsevier Science Harcourt Australia.

  • Glod, C. A. (1998). Contemporary psychiatric-mental health nursing : the brain-behavior connection. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis.


References1

References

  • Julien, R. M. (2001). A primer of drug action : a concise, non-technical guide to the actions, uses, and side effects of psychoactive drugs. New York: W. H. Freeman and Co.

  • Salerno, E. (1999). Pharmacology for health professionals. St. Louis: Mosby.

  • Townsend, M. C. (2000). Psychiatric mental health nursing: Concepts of care. (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: F. A. Davis.


References2

References

  • Whelan, G. (1998). The pharmacological dimensions of psychoactive drugs. In M. Sabto (Ed.), Drug use in Australia: A harm minimisation approach (pp.14-29). Melbourne: Oxford University Press.


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