John campbell director on highway engine products march 16 2004
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John Campbell Director On-Highway Engine Products March 16, 2004. American Trucking Association Technology & Maintenance Council. U.S. 2007 Emissions Requirements. PM = 0.01 g/bhp-hr Requires Particulate Filter NOx + HC = 1.2 g/bhp-hr Assumes Use of Phase-In Provision

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John Campbell Director On-Highway Engine Products March 16, 2004

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John campbell director on highway engine products march 16 2004

John CampbellDirector On-Highway Engine ProductsMarch 16, 2004

American Trucking Association

Technology & Maintenance Council


2007 emissions requirements

U.S.

2007 Emissions Requirements

  • PM = 0.01 g/bhp-hr

    • Requires Particulate Filter

  • NOx + HC = 1.2 g/bhp-hr

    • Assumes Use of Phase-In Provision

    • Requires NOx Aftertreatment, Advanced Combustion, or Both

  • Crankcase Emissions Counted As Part of Cycle Emissions

    • Drives Closed Crankcase Filter and/or Closed Crankcase

  • On-Board Diagnostics (OBD)

    • OBD Changed to EMD (Engine Manufacturers Diagnostics)

    • Monitoring Performance of Engine Components

    • Warning Light to Dashboard Fault

    • Isolation to Component Level

  • Emissions System Useful Life

    • 435,000 Miles for HD

    • 185,000 Miles for MR

0.35

0.3

‘91

0.25

0.2

Particulates (g/bhp-hr)

Engine

Modifications

0.15

‘02

‘98

‘94

0.1

ACERT

Engine

Modifications

0.05

‘10

‘07

0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

NOx (g/bhp-hr)

Cat Will Follow the 2007/2010Phase-In Provision


Acert is the foundation for 2007 2010

1998Engine

10/02

Bridge

10/03

ACERT

2007

ACERT

2010

ACERT

  • Add:

  • Split Inj

  • Oxicat

  • Add:

  • VVA

  • SeriesTurbo

  • Add:

  • Adv Comb

  • Flex FuelSystem

  • Diesel Part Filter

  • Thermal Mgmt

  • Adv Comband NOx

  • Aftertreatement

ACERT™ Is The Foundation for 2007 / 2010

  • Our Technology Strategy & Approach

    • Build Upon 2003 ACERT™

    • Continue to Enhance Engine Performance While Incrementally Introducing Aftertreatment

    • Investigate Multiple Particulate Technologies

    • Provide Best Value To Customer and Least Disruptive Technology to Truck OEMs


Particulate matter pm reduction technologies

Particulate Matter (PM) Reduction Technologies


Engine out particulate matter pm reduction

Lower Engine Out PM is an Enabler for Passive or “Less Active” Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF)

Less Soot Into The Filter Translates Into Lower Fuel Consumption Penalties for Regeneration

Developing Strategies to Reduce Engine Out PM

Combustion Development

Fuel Injection Improvements

Better Fuel Air Mixing

Engine-Out Cycle PM (g/bhp-hr)

Current Fuel /

Combustion

System

Advanced Fuel /

Combustion

System

Continue

Improvements

Cycle NOx (g/hp-hr)

Cycle NOx (g/hp-hr)

Engine Out Particulate Matter (PM) Reduction


John campbell director on highway engine products march 16 2004

Prime Path: Engine + EMD System

ECM/EMD

  • Ceramic Filter with Engine Thermal Management for Regeneration

  • Highest Filtration Efficiency

  • Lowest 1st Cost

  • Best Fuel Economy

  • Challenge: “Cold” Applications

Quick Disconnects

Temperature, Pressure Sensors

(Electronic Control Module/Engine Manufacturers Diagnostics)

Ceramic

Filter

Temperature, Pressure Sensors


System design for engine thermal management

System Design for Engine Thermal Management

  • System Requirements for Thermal Management & Regeneration

    • Short Setback

    • Single Can

      Preferred

ACERTOxidationCatalyst

2007

After-treatment

Not Too Hot,

Not Too Cold

Bring On

The Heat !

100ºC

200ºC

300ºC

400ºC

500ºC

600ºC

  • Engine Measures to Avoid Low Exhaust Temp

  • ECM Tracking of Emissions & Thermal History

  • Control System Logic to Trigger Thermal Events


John campbell director on highway engine products march 16 2004

Secondary Path: Self-Regenerating PM Filter

Controller

ECM/EMD

  • Internally “Active” Regeneration; Filter is Heated by Auxiliary Means

  • Regenerate Under All Conditions

  • Challenge: Cost & Complexity

Quick Disconnects

Heat

Generator

Temperature, Pressure Sensors

Thermal

Source/

Diffuser

Ceramic or

Metallic

Filter

Heat

Generator

Temperature, Pressure Sensors


Aftertreatment installation

Aftertreatment Installation

  • Round Filters are the Standard

    • Oval Configurations to be Explored but Considered High Risk

  • Setback Distance Will Be Important

    • Specifying Short Converter Setbacks will Enable Lower Cost Components & Better Fuel Consumption Solutions

    • Target 5 Feet from Turbo Outlet to DPF Inlet (Heat Retention)

    • Back-of-Cab and Side-of-Cab Mounting Not Probable

  • Target Is Single Can

    • Lower Cost, Better for Regeneration

  • Filter System Needs to Be Serviceable

    • Ash Removed at Specified Interval

    • Filter System Designed for Easy Service

    • Location must be Accessible


Oxides of nitrogen nox reduction technologies

Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) Reduction Technologies


Nox reduction options 2003

DeNOx

Catalyst

NOx

Adsorber

Urea

SCR

T

T

C

C

NOx Reduction Options (2003)

2003ACERTEngine

Particulate

Filter

NOxAT

Engine NOx Technology

Aftertreatment NOx Technology Options

AdvancedDiesel Combustion

  • Engine-Out NOx Measures Reduce Size / Cost of Aftertreatment

  • Aftertreatment Options Need to be Evaluated for Maturity and Cost

  • Combination of Engine Out and Aftertreatment may Provide Best NOx Reduction Value Path


Engine measures for nox reduction 2004

Engine Measures for NOx Reduction (2004)

  • Caterpillar Continues to Expand the Envelope On Engine Out Performance

  • ACERT has Further Ability to:

    • Reduce NOx & PM Emissions

    • Improve Fuel Consumption andHeat Rejection

  • Modifications for Engine Out NOx:

    • Fuel Systems

    • Air Systems

    • Piston/Ring/Liner Designs

    • MorElectric Initiative Systems Possible

Advanced

Combustion


Closed crankcase ventilation system ccv

Closed Crankcase Ventilation System(CCV)


Closed crankcase ventilation ccv system design options

T

T

C

C

Closed Crankcase Ventilation (CCV) System Design Options

Option 1:

Filter and Routeto Air Intake

2007 Requirement

  • Crankcase Emission Control Exception for Turbocharged Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Eliminated

  • Crankcase Emissions Treated Same as (i.e., Added to) Other Exhaust Emissions

CCV

Filter System

Particulate

Filter

CCV Filter

Component

Pump /One-WayValve

Option 2:

Filter and Route toExhaust Upstream of DPF

CCV

Filter System

  • Manufacturers Expected to Control Crankcase Emissions by:

    • Routing to Intake

    • Routing to Exhaust Stream Upstream of the Aftertreatment

CCV

Filter System

Option 3:

Filter and Vent to Atmosphere


2007 system architecture

2007 System Architecture


2007 system architecture heavy duty

T

T

T

T

C

C

C

C

2007 System ArchitectureHeavy Duty

Pre

Cooler

CCV Filter System

Option 1

ATAAC

Particulate

Filter

W/ or W/OAuxiliary

Device

HigherPressure

Injection

System

Variable Valve Actuation

w/ Thermal Management

Function

Series

Turbo Chargers


2007 system architecture midrange

T

T

C

C

2007 System ArchitectureMidrange

CCV Filter System

Option 1

ATAAC

Diesel

Particulate

Filter

W/ or W/OAuxiliary

Device

Device for

Thermal Management

Function

Higher Pressure

Injection

System

Conventional

Turbo Charger


Timelines

Timelines


John campbell director on highway engine products march 16 2004

Q1

Q1

Q1

Q1

Q2

Q2

Q2

Q2

Q3

Q3

Q3

Q3

Q4

Q4

Q4

Q4

C13

C15

2007 HD Program Timeline

R

S

2005

2003

2004

2006

OEM Engines

Field Test Engines

Customer Evaluation Engines

Additional Customer Evaluation Engines

Production


John campbell director on highway engine products march 16 2004

2005

2003

2004

2006

Q1

Q1

Q1

Q1

Q2

Q2

Q2

Q2

Q3

Q3

Q3

Q3

Q4

Q4

Q4

Q4

C7

Production

2007 MD Program Timeline

OEM Engines

Field Test Engines

Customer Evaluation Engine

Additional Customer Evaluation Engines

C9


Caterpillar conclusions

Caterpillar Conclusions

  • Finalizing Technologies for 2007

  • Diesel Particulate Filter Required

  • Engines Available for Fleet Purchase Mid - 2005


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