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Anatomy of the Cell. Cells differ (200 types), but share general structures Cells are organized into three main regions Nucleus Cytoplasm Plasma membrane. Figure 3.1a. The Nucleus - Control center. Contains genetic material (DNA) Nuclear envelope w/ pores Nucleolus Chromatin.

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Anatomy of the cell
Anatomy of the Cell

  • Cells differ (200 types), but share general structures

  • Cells are organized into three main regions

    • Nucleus

    • Cytoplasm

    • Plasma membrane

Figure 3.1a


The nucleus control center
The Nucleus - Control center

Contains genetic material (DNA)

  • Nuclear envelope w/ pores

  • Nucleolus

  • Chromatin

Figure 3.1b


nucleus

nuclear

pores


Chromatin
Chromatin

  • Composed of DNA and protein

  • Scattered throughout the nucleus

  • Chromatin condenses to form chromosomes when the cell divides


Rough endoplasmic reticulum

Transport vesiclebuds off

4

Ribosome

Secretory(glyco-) proteininside transportvesicle

Sugarchain

3

Glycoprotein

1

2

ROUGH ER

Polypeptide

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

  • Makes proteins, membranes

Figure 4.8


Golgi apparatus

Golgiapparatus

“Receiving” side ofGolgi apparatus

Transportvesiclefrom ER

Newvesicleforming

“Shipping”side of Golgiapparatus

Transport vesiclefrom the Golgi

Figure 4.10


Lysosomes

  • sacs of digestive enzymes

    • digest food. bacteria

    • recycle damaged organelles

    • embryonic development

    • waste storage

      Pombe’s disease - glycogen

      Tay-Sachs disease - lipids

LYSOSOME

Nucleus

Figure 4.11A


Rough ER

Transport vesicle(containing inactivehydrolytic enzymes)

Plasmamembrane

Golgiapparatus

Engulfmentof particle

Lysosomeengulfingdamagedorganelle

“Food”

LYSOSOMES

Digestion

Foodvacuole

Figure 4.11B


Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

  • synthesizes lipids

  • regulates carbohydrate metabolism (liver)

  • breaks down toxins and drugs (liver)

  • Stores Ca++ in muscle cells


Mitochondrion

Outermembrane

Intermembranespace

Innermembrane

Cristae

Matrix

Figure 4.16



The cytoskeleton helps organize a cell s structure and activities
The CYTOSKELETON helps organize a cell’s structure and activities

  • network of protein fibers - microfilaments, microtubules

Figure 4.17A


Cilia and flagella
Cilia and flagella activities

  • appendages that protrude from certain cells

  • Function: movement

  • Made of microtubules wrapped in the plasma membrane

  • Centrioles - movement of chromosomes in cell division


  • sticky layer of glycoproteins

  • binds cells together in tissues

  • protects and support cells


Plasma membrane specializations
Plasma Membrane Specializations activities

  • Microvilli

    • increase surface area for absorption

  • Membrane junctions

    • Tight junctions

    • Desmosomes

    • Gap junctions

Figure 3.3


Cells and tissues
Cells and Tissues activities

  • Cells = building blocks of all living things

  • Carry out chemical activities needed for life

  • Tissues are groups of cells that are similar in structure and function


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