Chapter 18 the fr en ch revolution and napoleon
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Chapter 18: The FR EN CH REVOLUTION and NAPOLEON. Day 1 - Section 1: The French Revolution Begins. Objectives for Today:. Understand the background to the Revolution Class structure of France King Louis XVI Financial crisis Understand early events of the French Revolution

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Chapter 18: The FR EN CH REVOLUTION and NAPOLEON

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Chapter 18 the fr en ch revolution and napoleon

Chapter 18: The FRENCH REVOLUTION and NAPOLEON


Day 1 section 1 the french revolution begins

Day 1 - Section 1: The French Revolution Begins


Objectives for today

Objectives for Today:

  • Understand the background to the Revolution

    • Class structure of France

    • King Louis XVI

    • Financial crisis

  • Understand early events of the French Revolution

    • The Estates-General and National Assembly

    • End of the Old Regime

      • Declaration of the Rights of Man

      • End of Absolutism

      • Church reforms

      • New Constitution (1791)

      • War with Austria

    • Rise of the Paris Commune


Lesson vocabulary

Lesson Vocabulary

  • Estates

  • Taille

  • Bourgeoisie

  • Louis XVI

  • Tennis Court Oath

  • Declaration of the Rights of Man

  • Olympe de Gouges

  • Sans-culottes


Time line activity

Time Line Activity

On a sheet of paper draw a line.

Mark the first date as 1787.

As we progress through the lesson you will notice that some dates are written in BLUE. Mark them on your timeline and note the event that took place.


Class structure of france

Class Structure of France

Three estates divided French society.

  • The First Estate

    • Clergy

  • The Second Estate

    • Nobility

  • The Third Estate

    • Everyone else


Picture analysis 1

Picture Analysis #1

a. What does this picture say about the relationships between the three estates of France?

b. Looking at this picture, which estate do you think the artist was a part of?

-take a moment to write down your response.


The first estate the clergy

The First Estate – The Clergy

Before the Revolution:

  • Made up .5% of France’s population

  • Owned 10% of land in France

  • Did not have to pay the TAILLE(France’s Chief tax).


The second estate the nobility

The Second Estate – The Nobility

Before the Revolution:

  • Made up 1.5% of France’s population

  • Owned 25% of land in France

  • Like the Clergy, did not have to pay the TAILLE


The third estate everyone else part 1

The Third Estate – Everyone Else (Part 1)

Before the Revolution:

  • Made up 98% of France’s population.

  • Owned 65% of land in France.

  • Only estate required to pay the TAILLE

  • Included every French citizen from the poorest farmer to the richest merchant.


The third estate everyone else part 2

The Third Estate – Everyone Else (Part 2)

Breakdown of Third Estate:

  • Peasants made up 75-80% of population and owned 35-40% of land (of the estate).

  • Peasants had to pay duties to nobility, a hold over from Feudal practices.

  • Craftsmen, workers and shopkeepers made up 10% of the population and struggled to survives as the price of goods rose quickly.


The third estate everyone else part 3

The Third Estate – Everyone Else (Part 3)

The BOURGEOISIE:

  • Middle Class of France.

  • Made up 8% of the population.

  • Owned 20-25% of the land in France.

  • Included; Merchants, Bankers, Industrialists and Professionals.

  • Aspired to join the nobility, often paying for the privilege.


Writing activity 1

Writing Activity #1

  • On a sheet of paper pretend that you are a member of one of the three estates.

  • Now imagine that during the French Revolution Twitter existed!

  • Create a “tweet” about how you feel about the state of France and the King.

  • Keep your response under 144 characters!

    After you are done take a moment to laugh at how out of touch the teacher is with your generation!


King louis xvi

King Louis XVI

  • Ruled France from 1774-1791.

  • Married to Marie Antoinette

  • Initially popular with population, but overtime became a symbol of tyranny in France.

  • Viewed as indecisive and overly conservative in his policy making and leadership.

  • Strong supporter of the United States during the Revolutionary War with Britain (more to regain Canada and other territories and far less because he believed in American independence).


Marie antoinette

Marie Antoinette

  • Youngest daughter of Francis I, the Holy Roman Empire (Austria).

  • Known for her extravagance and generally disliked by the French population.

  • Never said, “Let them eat cake.”


Financial crisis

Financial Crisis!

  • Social conditions were a longstanding issues that led to the revolution.

  • Prior to the crisis France had experienced 50 years of expansion and prosperity.

  • Bad harvests in 1787 and 1788, and a slow down in manufacturing led to food shortages, rising costs and unemployment.

  • Cost of supporting the United States was high and France benefitted little, and took on high interest debt.

  • Crisis led King Louis XVI to convene the Estates-General with the goal of raising new taxes.


The estates general

The Estates-General

  • Before being convened on May 5th, 1789, the body had not met since 1614 (175 years).

  • The First and Second Estates each had about 300 representatives.

  • The Third Estate hade nearly 600 representatives.

  • The Third Estate wanted a constitutional government that would require the First and Second Estate to pay taxes as well.


Picture analysis 2

Picture Analysis #2

a. What does this picture say about the relationships between the three estates of France?

b. Looking at this picture, which estate do you think the artist was a part of?

-take a moment to write down your response.


Why it failed

Why it failed?

  • The King of France and the First and Second Estate had no interest in creating a constitutional government.

  • Traditionally each estate had one vote, regardless of the number of representatives.

  • Subsequently, the First and Second Estate could outvote the Third Estate 2-1 in any situation.

  • The Third Estate demanded a change to how votes were distributed that would make the process more fair.

  • King Louix XVI supported the “one vote each” system, ending any further discussion.

  • On June 17, 1789, in protest the Third Estate declared that it was the National Assembly and would create a constitution.


The national assembly

The National Assembly

  • June 20th, 1789,locked out of their meeting place at Versailles, the new National Assembly moved to a nearby tennis court, declaring that they would not stop meeting until a new constitution was created.

  • This oath became known as the TENNIS COURT OATH.

  • In response Louis XVI threatened to use force against the Third Estate.


The storming of the bastille

The Storming of the Bastille

  • 900 Parisians gathered at the Bastille on July 14th 1789.

  • Food shortages and rumors that the King’s troops were headed to Paris to restore order.

  • The Bastille was believed to hold ammunition and weapons.

  • Fighting broke out and after four hours the Bastille was overtaken, later demolished.

  • This marked the beginning of the French Revolution and the collapse of the King’s authority in Paris.


End of the old regime

End of the Old Regime

  • Following the fall of the Bastille, peasant rebellions broke out all over France.

  • The National Assembly abolished all legal privileges of the First and Second Estate (August 4th, 1789).

  • The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen is adopted by the National Assembly.

    • Inspired by the English Bill of Rights, and the American Declaration of Independence and Constitution.

    • Proclaimed;

      • All men were free and equal before the law.

      • No group were exempt from tax.

      • Holding of public office based on talent (ability)

      • The right of Free Speech and a free press.


All men were free and equal

All men were free and equal…

  • Writer and activist Olympe de Gourgesdid not accept the exclusion of women in the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen.

  • She argued that women were just as entitled to the same rights and protections as men were in her work, the Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen.

  • Her later attacks on the regime of Maximilien Robespierre and her close association with the Girondists led to her to be executed by guillotine in 1793 during the Reign of Terror.


The king concedes

The King Concedes

  • Initially, Louis XVI stubbornly refused to accept the decrees of the National Assembly.

  • October 5th, 1789, thousands of Parisian women march on Versailles with all manner of weapons, forcing the king to accept.

  • October 6th, 1789, Louis XVI and royal family are forced to return to Paris to show support for the National Assembly.


Church reforms

Church Reforms

  • The National Assembly seized and sold of land owned by the Catholic Church to increase state revenues.

  • Church official brought under state control. Bishops and Priests would be elected rather than appointed by the Pope.

  • These acts galvanized many Catholics against the new government.


New constitution

New Constitution

  • Formally approved September 3rd, 1791 it created a limited monarchy.

  • Louis XVI remained King, but all laws were now made by a Legislative Assembly.

  • “Active” citizens men over the age of 25 who paid enough tax could vote.

  • “Passive” citizens were everyone else.

  • Only the wealthy would be able to join the Legislative Assembly.

  • All government and church officials would be elected.


Writing activity 2

Writing Activity #2

  • Imagine that you are a peasant in France who has just be read a copy of the new constitution.

  • How would you feel about it?

  • Is life better than it was before? Why or why not?

  • Take a moment to write down your thoughts.


War with austria

War with Austria

  • European rulers began to fear that their own people might follow the French example and begin revolution.

  • Austria and Prussia both threated to use force if Louis XVI was not restored to power.

  • Insulted and fearful of attack the Legislative Assembly declared war on Austria (April 20th 1792).


The paris commune

The Paris Commune

  • Food Shortages and early defeats in the war with Austria led to protests and demonstrations in Paris. (Spring 1792)

  • These protesters formed the Paris Commune (a city council).

  • Mob attacks on the royal palace and Legislative Assembly were carried out. The king was taken captive.

  • The monarchy was suspended and a new National Assembly called for.

  • All men were to be allowed to vote.

  • Many members of the Paris Commune referred to themselves as the sans-culottes.


Entering a more radical phase

Entering a more radical phase…

Because;

  • Threat of foreign intervention.

  • Disappointing war with Austria.

  • Little improvement to economy in France.

    Radicals called for;

  • New measures to secure the future of the Revolution and improves the lives of the French people.


Time line activity continued

Time Line Activity (continued)

  • Take a moment to look at the timeline activity that you completed as we completed this discussion and lecture.

  • What do you find interesting about the events, the order and the time passed from 1787 to 1792.

  • Take a moment to write down your thoughts.


Chapter 18 the fr en ch revolution and napoleon

For now…


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