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POPs Monitoring in Japan – Fate and Behavior of POPs -. Takeshi NAKANO, (Hyogo Pref. Inst. of Pub. Health & Env. Sci.) [email protected]

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slide1

POPs Monitoring in Japan

– Fate and Behavior of POPs -

Takeshi NAKANO, (Hyogo Pref. Inst. of Pub. Health & Env. Sci.) [email protected]

Minoru FUKUSHIMA (Osaka city Inst. of Pub. Health & Env. Sci.), Yasuyuki SHIBATA, Noriyuki SUZUKI, Yoshikatsu TAKAZAWA (National Inst. for Env. Studies), Yoshitoku YOSHIDA, Noriya NAKAJIMA, Yasunori ENOMOTO (Ministry of Environment), Shinsuke TANABE (Ehime University), Masatoshi MORITA (National Inst. for Env. Studies)

slide2

Introduction

POPs monitoring by Japanese Ministry of the Environment (former Environment Agency) had continued from 1978 in the biological samples and from 1986 in the water and sediment samples until 2001. To cope with the Stockholm Convention, changing pollution levels, and the technological innovations, the activity was reframed into "POPs pollution investigation (POPs monitoring survey)" in 2002 taking into consideration the data accumulation and continuity.

slide3

Methods and Materials

POPs monitoring survey fiscal year 2002,

-102 air samples from 34 sites,

-114 water samples from 38 sites,

-189 sediment samples from 63 sites,

-118 biological samples from 24 sites

were analyzed using HRGC/HRMS for

PCBs, HCB, aldrin, endrin, DDTs, chlordanes, heptachlor, and HCHs.

slide4

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by POPs monitoring survey from the Ministry of Environment.

trend of pcb use in japan
Trend of PCB Use in Japan

Total 58,000t

Amount of PCB use (t)

slide6

PCB usage(t)

PCB level (ng/m3)

slide7

0.01-1ng/m3

0.1-10ng/L

Air

Water

Sediment

Biota

0.05-800ng/g-dry

0.1-800ng/g-wet

POPs levels (2002)

slide8

Fish

Air

大気

Shellfish

Water

貝類

水質

Sediment

Bird

底質

slide9

50

45

abundance(%)

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

Air

Human blood

Water

Breast milk

Bird

slide10

2002

γ-HCH

biota

water

sediment

air

α-HCH

slide11

2002

β-HCH

biota

water

sediment

air

α-HCH

slide12

2002

cis-CHL

biota

sediment

water

air

trans-CHL

slide13

2002

heptachlor

sediment

air

biota

water

trans-CHL

slide14

2002

oxy-CHL

biota

water

sediment

air

trans-CHL

slide15

2002

DDEs

biota

sediment

water

air

DDTs

slide16

2002

DDDs

sediment

biota

water

air

DDTs

slide17

2002

DDDs

sediment

biota

water

air

DDEs

slide18

2002

o,p’-DDT

biota

sediment

air

water

p,p’-DDT

slide20

Atmosphere

heptachlor

Max

dieldrin

DDTs

75%

Median

25%

aldrin

endrin

HCB

Concentration(pg/m3)

HCHs

PCBs

Min

chlordane

Atmosphere

slide21

Water

DDTs

Max

Median

heptachlor

75%

endrin

aldrin

25%

Concentration(pg/l)

PCBs

Min

HCHs

HCB

chlordane

dieldrin

Water

slide22

40

250

200

30

150

20

100

10

50

0

0

1970

1980

1990

2000

HCH

y=(3×109)e-0.13xr2=0.88

HCH Concentration (x103pg/l)

PCB Concentration (x103pg/l)

Years

Time Trends of PCBs and HCHs Concentrations in Yodo River

slide23

Sediment

endrin

HCHs

HCB

Max

dieldrin

Median

aldrin

heptachlor

75%

Concentration(pg/g-dry)

25%

PCBs

Min

DDTs

chlordane

Sediment

slide24

Biota

endrin

HCHs

Max

HCB

75%

Median

Concentration(pg/g)

25%

heptachlor

aldrin

Min

DDTs

PCBs

chlordane

dieldrin

Biota

slide25

←DDTs(7.8×105)

chlordanePCBsHCB HCHs heptachlor DDTsdieldrinendrinaldrin

←PCBs(4.2×104)

←HCHs(3.1×103)

chlordane(2.4×104)

HCB(4.2×104)

dieldrin(2.7×104)

endrin(1.4×104)

aldrin(1.6×104)

HCHsPCBschlordaneDDTsdieldrinHCBendrinheptachloraldrin

heptachlor(1.4×104)

Fish

Bird

Water

Sediment

Shell fish

Atmosphere

Biota

Concentration Ratios for POPs

slide26

p,p’-DDT

Technical DDT

o,p’-DDT

o,p’-DDE

p,p’-DDE

p,p’-DDD

o,p’-DDD

40

Atmosphere

Mussel

20

0

40

Fish

Water

20

0

40

Sediment

Bird

20

0

60

40

20

0

80

60

40

20

0

100

80

60

40

20

0

slide27

DDT vs DDD

1000

Biota (●)

Sediment (●)

×103pg/m3, l, kg

1

Water (●)

0.001

Atmosphere (●)

0.0001

0.01

1

100

10000

1000000

×103pg/m3, l, kg

slide28

30

t-CHL

20

Technical Chlordane

c-CHL

10

t-NCL

HEP

0

c-NCL

OXY

HEPX

Mussel

Atmosphere

Fish

Water

Bird

Sediment

60

40

20

0

Relative Concentration (%) of Chlordane and its related Compounds

slide29

trans- vs cis-chlordane

Biota (●)

1000

Sediment (●)

×103pg/m3, l, kg

Water (●)

1

Atmosphere (●)

0.001

100

1

1000000

10000

0.0001

0.01

×103pg/m3, l, kg

slide30

Technical HCH

α

γ

β

δ

Atmosphere

Mussel

Water

Fish

Sediment

Bird

slide31

α-HCH vs β-HCH

Biota (●)

1000

Sediment (●)

Water (●)

×103pg/m3, l, kg

1

0.001

Atmosphere (●)

0.001

1

1000

×103pg/m3, l, kg

slide32

Lake Biwa in 1975

α:17%

γ:8%

β:75%

11000

3000

100

Av Conc 158600pg/l

80

2000

60

Composition(%)

Concentration(pg/l)

40

1000

20

0

0

slide33

(1,400-2,100)

chlordane in Ambient Air

Concentration (pg/m3)

slide34

(2100)

Chlordane in Water

Concentration (pg/L)

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