POPs Monitoring in Japan
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POPs Monitoring in Japan – Fate and Behavior of POPs -. Takeshi NAKANO, (Hyogo Pref. Inst. of Pub. Health & Env. Sci.) [email protected]

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Pops monitoring in japan fate and behavior of pops

POPs Monitoring in Japan

– Fate and Behavior of POPs -

Takeshi NAKANO, (Hyogo Pref. Inst. of Pub. Health & Env. Sci.) [email protected]

Minoru FUKUSHIMA (Osaka city Inst. of Pub. Health & Env. Sci.), Yasuyuki SHIBATA, Noriyuki SUZUKI, Yoshikatsu TAKAZAWA (National Inst. for Env. Studies), Yoshitoku YOSHIDA, Noriya NAKAJIMA, Yasunori ENOMOTO (Ministry of Environment), Shinsuke TANABE (Ehime University), Masatoshi MORITA (National Inst. for Env. Studies)


Pops monitoring in japan fate and behavior of pops

Introduction

POPs monitoring by Japanese Ministry of the Environment (former Environment Agency) had continued from 1978 in the biological samples and from 1986 in the water and sediment samples until 2001. To cope with the Stockholm Convention, changing pollution levels, and the technological innovations, the activity was reframed into "POPs pollution investigation (POPs monitoring survey)" in 2002 taking into consideration the data accumulation and continuity.


Pops monitoring in japan fate and behavior of pops

Methods and Materials

POPs monitoring survey fiscal year 2002,

-102 air samples from 34 sites,

-114 water samples from 38 sites,

-189 sediment samples from 63 sites,

-118 biological samples from 24 sites

were analyzed using HRGC/HRMS for

PCBs, HCB, aldrin, endrin, DDTs, chlordanes, heptachlor, and HCHs.


Pops monitoring in japan fate and behavior of pops

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by POPs monitoring survey from the Ministry of Environment.


Trend of pcb use in japan

Trend of PCB Use in Japan

Total 58,000t

Amount of PCB use (t)


Pops monitoring in japan fate and behavior of pops

PCB usage(t)

PCB level (ng/m3)


Pops monitoring in japan fate and behavior of pops

0.01-1ng/m3

0.1-10ng/L

Air

Water

Sediment

Biota

0.05-800ng/g-dry

0.1-800ng/g-wet

POPs levels (2002)


Pops monitoring in japan fate and behavior of pops

Fish

Air

大気

Shellfish

Water

貝類

水質

Sediment

Bird

底質


Pops monitoring in japan fate and behavior of pops

50

45

abundance(%)

40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

Air

Human blood

Water

Breast milk

Bird


Pops monitoring in japan fate and behavior of pops

2002

γ-HCH

biota

water

sediment

air

α-HCH


Pops monitoring in japan fate and behavior of pops

2002

β-HCH

biota

water

sediment

air

α-HCH


Pops monitoring in japan fate and behavior of pops

2002

cis-CHL

biota

sediment

water

air

trans-CHL


Pops monitoring in japan fate and behavior of pops

2002

heptachlor

sediment

air

biota

water

trans-CHL


Pops monitoring in japan fate and behavior of pops

2002

oxy-CHL

biota

water

sediment

air

trans-CHL


Pops monitoring in japan fate and behavior of pops

2002

DDEs

biota

sediment

water

air

DDTs


Pops monitoring in japan fate and behavior of pops

2002

DDDs

sediment

biota

water

air

DDTs


Pops monitoring in japan fate and behavior of pops

2002

DDDs

sediment

biota

water

air

DDEs


Pops monitoring in japan fate and behavior of pops

2002

o,p’-DDT

biota

sediment

air

water

p,p’-DDT


Pops monitoring in japan fate and behavior of pops

Atmosphere

heptachlor

Max

dieldrin

DDTs

75%

Median

25%

aldrin

endrin

HCB

Concentration(pg/m3)

HCHs

PCBs

Min

chlordane

Atmosphere


Pops monitoring in japan fate and behavior of pops

Water

DDTs

Max

Median

heptachlor

75%

endrin

aldrin

25%

Concentration(pg/l)

PCBs

Min

HCHs

HCB

chlordane

dieldrin

Water


Pops monitoring in japan fate and behavior of pops

40

250

200

30

150

20

100

10

50

0

0

1970

1980

1990

2000

HCH

y=(3×109)e-0.13xr2=0.88

HCH Concentration (x103pg/l)

PCB Concentration (x103pg/l)

Years

Time Trends of PCBs and HCHs Concentrations in Yodo River


Pops monitoring in japan fate and behavior of pops

Sediment

endrin

HCHs

HCB

Max

dieldrin

Median

aldrin

heptachlor

75%

Concentration(pg/g-dry)

25%

PCBs

Min

DDTs

chlordane

Sediment


Pops monitoring in japan fate and behavior of pops

Biota

endrin

HCHs

Max

HCB

75%

Median

Concentration(pg/g)

25%

heptachlor

aldrin

Min

DDTs

PCBs

chlordane

dieldrin

Biota


Pops monitoring in japan fate and behavior of pops

←DDTs(7.8×105)

chlordanePCBsHCB HCHs heptachlor DDTsdieldrinendrinaldrin

←PCBs(4.2×104)

←HCHs(3.1×103)

chlordane(2.4×104)

HCB(4.2×104)

dieldrin(2.7×104)

endrin(1.4×104)

aldrin(1.6×104)

HCHsPCBschlordaneDDTsdieldrinHCBendrinheptachloraldrin

heptachlor(1.4×104)

Fish

Bird

Water

Sediment

Shell fish

Atmosphere

Biota

Concentration Ratios for POPs


Pops monitoring in japan fate and behavior of pops

p,p’-DDT

Technical DDT

o,p’-DDT

o,p’-DDE

p,p’-DDE

p,p’-DDD

o,p’-DDD

40

Atmosphere

Mussel

20

0

40

Fish

Water

20

0

40

Sediment

Bird

20

0

60

40

20

0

80

60

40

20

0

100

80

60

40

20

0


Pops monitoring in japan fate and behavior of pops

DDT vs DDD

1000

Biota (●)

Sediment (●)

×103pg/m3, l, kg

1

Water (●)

0.001

Atmosphere (●)

0.0001

0.01

1

100

10000

1000000

×103pg/m3, l, kg


Pops monitoring in japan fate and behavior of pops

30

t-CHL

20

Technical Chlordane

c-CHL

10

t-NCL

HEP

0

c-NCL

OXY

HEPX

Mussel

Atmosphere

Fish

Water

Bird

Sediment

60

40

20

0

Relative Concentration (%) of Chlordane and its related Compounds


Pops monitoring in japan fate and behavior of pops

trans- vs cis-chlordane

Biota (●)

1000

Sediment (●)

×103pg/m3, l, kg

Water (●)

1

Atmosphere (●)

0.001

100

1

1000000

10000

0.0001

0.01

×103pg/m3, l, kg


Pops monitoring in japan fate and behavior of pops

Technical HCH

α

γ

β

δ

Atmosphere

Mussel

Water

Fish

Sediment

Bird


Pops monitoring in japan fate and behavior of pops

α-HCH vs β-HCH

Biota (●)

1000

Sediment (●)

Water (●)

×103pg/m3, l, kg

1

0.001

Atmosphere (●)

0.001

1

1000

×103pg/m3, l, kg


Pops monitoring in japan fate and behavior of pops

Lake Biwa in 1975

α:17%

γ:8%

β:75%

11000

3000

100

Av Conc 158600pg/l

80

2000

60

Composition(%)

Concentration(pg/l)

40

1000

20

0

0


Pops monitoring in japan fate and behavior of pops

(1,400-2,100)

chlordane in Ambient Air

Concentration (pg/m3)


Pops monitoring in japan fate and behavior of pops

(2100)

Chlordane in Water

Concentration (pg/L)


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