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Bridge Engineering. 桥 梁 工 程. 陈小佳 Email : [email protected] 。 edu.cn. Bridge Engineering 桥 梁 工 程. About this course: 关于本课程 The course concerns the bridge design and its construction 本课程是研究桥梁设计和桥梁施工方法的学科 The relation between the course and former courses 本课程与以前所学课程的关系 :

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Bridge Engineering

桥 梁 工 程

  • 陈小佳

  • Email:[email protected]


Bridge engineering
Bridge Engineering桥 梁 工 程

About this course: 关于本课程

The course concerns the bridge design and its construction

本课程是研究桥梁设计和桥梁施工方法的学科

The relation between the course and former courses

本课程与以前所学课程的关系 :

Construction material 建筑材料

Material Mechanics材料力学

Structural Mechanics结构力学

Principle of structure design结构设计原理

Some necessary reference 必备的参考资料

行业标准,公路工程技术标准(TJG B01-2003)

行业标准,公路钢筋混凝土及预应力混凝土桥涵设计规范

(TJG D62-2004)

  • SCHOOL OF TRANSPORTATION, WUT PRODUCED BY:X J CHEN


Bridge engrg part i

Chapter 1 Introduction

BRIDGE ENGRGPART I

  • Development of the Bridge Engineering桥梁的发展

  • Evolvement of the Materials

    材料的演变

  • Progress on the Theory

    理论的发展

  • Advancement on the Technique

    技术的进步

  • SCHOOL OF TRANSPORTATION, WUT PRODUCED BY:X J CHEN


Development of the bridge engineering evolvement of the materials
Development of the Bridge Engineering---- Evolvement of the Materials

出土壁画中描述的木结构桥梁

桥梁各部分清晰可辨,结构井然有序

  • SCHOOL OF TRANSPORTATION, WUT PRODUCED BY:X J CHEN


Evolvement of the materials
Evolvement of the Materials 材料的演变

The wood bridge preserved in China

国内尚保存的木结构桥梁

Corridor Bridge in Tai Shun, Zhejiang

浙江泰顺廊桥

  • SCHOOL OF TRANSPORTATION, WUT PRODUCED BY:X J CHEN


Evolvement of the materials1
Evolvement of the Materials 材料的演变

古罗马时期的石桥 半圆拱的杰作。

各方石材之间均为干砌,石材加工之精细,令人惊叹。

  • SCHOOL OF TRANSPORTATION, WUT PRODUCED BY:X J CHEN


Evolvement of the materials2
Evolvement of the Materials 材料的演变

世界著名石拱桥——赵州桥(或名安济桥)

历经1400年,创造了多项世界奇迹

  • SCHOOL OF TRANSPORTATION, WUT PRODUCED BY:X J CHEN


Evolvement of the materials3
Evolvement of the Materials 材料的演变

中国江浙一带优美的石拱桥

和环境协调

统一的产物

  • SCHOOL OF TRANSPORTATION, WUT PRODUCED BY:X J CHEN


Evolvement of the materials4
Evolvement of the Materials 材料的演变

The first Iron Bridge in the world

near Telford

in Shropshire,

built in 1779

  • SCHOOL OF TRANSPORTATION, WUT PRODUCED BY:X J CHEN


Evolvement of the materials5
Evolvement of the Materials 材料的演变

The times of high capability / performance materials

高性能材料的时代

Steel: high strength and low relaxation

Concrete : high strength and good workability

  • SCHOOL OF TRANSPORTATION, WUT PRODUCED BY:X J CHEN


Development of the bridge engineering progress on the theory
Development of the Bridge Engineering---- Progress on the Theory

材料的飞速发展和应用,推动了理论的研究,使得设计理论日趋成熟。

Empirical design method 经验设计法

Allowance stress method 允许应力法

kσ ≤ [σ]

Ultimate state design method 极限状态设计法

S(rgG; rq∑Q) ≤ rdR(Rg/rg; Rc/rc)

  • SCHOOL OF TRANSPORTATION, WUT PRODUCED BY:X J CHEN


Development of the bridge engineering advancement on the technique
Development of the Bridge Engineering ---- Advancement on the Technique

Transportation / Lifting capacity / Setting

施工技术的发展早期体现在运输、起重和安装方面。

福建漳州虎渡桥(1240年),总长340 m,最大跨的石梁长23.7m,高1.9m,就利用了潮水涨落来进行浮运架设,这是人类利用自然力量来进行桥梁施工。

现在的浮吊起重能力可达14000kN,运输的方式根据不同情况,可以从陆(地)、海(水上)、空三个方面进行。

现代桥梁施工技术还体现在桥梁的施工控制方面,桥梁在施工阶段往往是最脆弱的,也就是我们常比拟为桥梁的成长期,需要特别的保护;不仅仅是安全, 还包括线形控制等。

  • SCHOOL OF TRANSPORTATION, WUT PRODUCED BY:X J CHEN


Development of the bridge engineering
Development of the Bridge Engineering the Technique

Modern bridges

  • SCHOOL OF TRANSPORTATION, WUT PRODUCED BY:X J CHEN


Development of the bridge engineering1
Development of the Bridge Engineering the Technique

Longest bridge across the sea

世界第一长跨大桥——日本明石大桥

  • SCHOOL OF TRANSPORTATION, WUT PRODUCED BY:X J CHEN


What is bridge

By nature the Technique

Bridge over river

obstacle

By human

Viaduct

What is Bridge ?

A bridge is defined as the structure that surmounts an obstacle, such as a river or declivity and is used as a passageway for pedestrian, motor or rail traffic.

——New Encyclopedia Britannia

桥梁定义为跨越河流、山谷等障碍物并被用来作为行人、汽车或列车的通道的结构物。

Can an aqueduct be thought as a bridge?

渡槽是否为桥梁呢?

  • SCHOOL OF TRANSPORTATION, WUT PRODUCED BY:X J CHEN


Classification of the Bridge and its Constitutes the Technique桥梁的基本组成与分类

  • The main types of bridge structure 桥梁的主要类型

  • Beam bridge 梁式桥

  • Arch bridge拱式桥

  • Rigid-frame bridge刚架桥

  • Cable-stayed bridge & Suspension bridge 索承桥 (包括斜拉桥和悬索桥)

  • Combination bridge of different systems 组合体系桥

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Classification of the Bridge and its Constitutes the Technique桥梁的基本组成与分类

  • Beam bridge 梁式桥

    特点 :竖向荷载下无水平反力,梁只承受剪力和弯矩。

  • SCHOOL OF TRANSPORTATION, WUT PRODUCED BY:X J CHEN


Classification of the Bridge and its Constitutes the Technique桥梁的基本组成与分类

  • Arch bridge 拱式桥

    特点 :竖向荷载下有水平反力,能消除拱体部分弯矩,拱主要受压,可采用圬工或混凝土结构建造,对基础地质条件要求较高。

  • SCHOOL OF TRANSPORTATION, WUT PRODUCED BY:X J CHEN


Classification of the Bridge and its Constitutes the Technique桥梁的基本组成与分类

  • Rigid-frame bridge 刚架桥

    特点 :梁柱共同工作,桥下净空易保证,对跨线桥非常有利。

  • SCHOOL OF TRANSPORTATION, WUT PRODUCED BY:X J CHEN


Classification of the Bridge and its Constitutes the Technique桥梁的基本组成与分类

Suspension bridge 悬索桥

特点 :构件受力明确,塔受压(弯);索受拉;梁为弹性支撑连续梁。

  • SCHOOL OF TRANSPORTATION, WUT PRODUCED BY:X J CHEN


Classification of the Bridge and its Constitutes the Technique桥梁的基本组成与分类

  • 桥梁的主要类型

  • Cable-stayed bridge 斜拉桥

    特点 :与吊桥类似, 梁除受弯剪外,还受压。

  • SCHOOL OF TRANSPORTATION, WUT PRODUCED BY:X J CHEN


Classification of the Bridge and its Constitutes the Technique桥梁的基本组成与分类

按使用性质分为公路桥、公铁两用桥、人行桥等。

按跨径大小和多跨总长分为小桥、中桥、大桥、特大桥。

新的《公路工程技术标准》(JTG B01-2003) (2004-03-01实施)

对特大桥和大桥重新作了界定。

  • SCHOOL OF TRANSPORTATION, WUT PRODUCED BY:X J CHEN


Classification of the Bridge and its Constitutes the Technique桥梁的基本组成与分类

按行车道位置分为上承式桥、中承式桥、下承式桥。

按使用年限可分为永久性桥、半永久性桥、临时桥。

按材料类型分为木桥、圬工桥、钢筋砼桥、预应力桥、钢桥。

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Classification of the Bridge and its Constitutes the Technique桥梁的基本组成

The main parts of the bridge桥梁的组成

Superstructure

上部结构

Substructure

下部结构

Bridge

桥 梁

Bearing

支座

Accessory

附属设施

  • SCHOOL OF TRANSPORTATION, WUT PRODUCED BY:X J CHEN


Classification of the Bridge and its Constitutes the Technique桥梁的基本组成

桥梁的组成——下部结构

下部结构包括桥墩( pier )、桥台( abutment )和基础(foundation)。

桥梁的组成——上部结构

上部结构俗称桥跨结构,是跨越障碍的主要承重结构,习惯上是指支座以上跨越桥孔的结构物总称

上部结构

桥台

基础

下部结构

桩基础

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Classification of the Bridge and its Constitutes the Technique桥梁的基本组成

桥梁的组成——bearing支座

支座(bearing)是根据设计要求允许上部结构产生一定变位的传力装置。

  • SCHOOL OF TRANSPORTATION, WUT PRODUCED BY:X J CHEN


Classification of the Bridge and its Constitutes the Technique桥梁的基本组成

  • 桥梁的组成—— Accessory 附属设施

  • Including:

  • 桥面铺装(bridge decking)

  • 排水设施(drainage)

  • 伸缩缝(expansion joint)

  • 桥梁与路堤衔接处的桥头搭板(transition slab at bridge head)

  • 锥形护坡(conical slope)

  • 人行道(pavement)

  • 路灯(lamp standard)

  • 栏杆(guardrail)

  • 缘石(kerb)

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Terminology related with bridge engineering the Technique桥梁的若干名词术语

  • Water lever水位

  • 低水位(low water lever) : 枯水季节的最低水位。

  • 高水位(high water lever) :洪峰季节河流中的最高水位。

  • 设计洪水位(designed flood lever): 桥梁设计中按规定的设计洪水频率计算所得的高水位。

  • 计算水位(calculated water lever): 设计洪水位加壅水和浪高得到的水位。

  • 通航水位(navigable water lever): 在各级航道中能保持船舶正常航行时的水位。

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Terminology related with bridge engineering the Technique桥梁的若干名词术语

  • 与桥梁的布置有关的术语

  • 净跨径(clear span) l0

  • 总跨径(total span) ∑ l0

  • 计算跨径(computed span)l

  • 标准跨径(standard span) lk

  • 桥梁全长(total length of bridge) L

  • 桥下净空(clearance of span) H

  • 桥面净空(clearance above bridge floor)

  • 桥梁建筑高度(construction height of bridge) h

L

h

l0

H

设计 水位

l

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Terminology related with bridge engineering the Technique桥梁的若干名词术语

  • 与桥梁的布置有关的术语

  • 净矢高( clearance of rise) f0

  • 计算矢高(computed rise) f

  • 矢跨比( rise-span ratio)f/l

f

f0

l0

l

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支座 the Techniquebearing

支座垫板 bearing plates

墩帽pier cap

基础footing

Terminology related with bridge engineering桥梁的若干名词术语

桥梁的组成:

下部结构及支座

Pier

BACK

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翼墙 the Techniquewing walls

背墙 back wall

胸墙 breast wall

翼墙 wing walls

基础footing

基础footing

Terminology related with bridge engineering桥梁的若干名词术语

桥梁的组成:下部结构——桥台Abutment

背墙 back wall

重力式桥台 Masonry abutment

bridge seat

台帽 cap

轻型桥台 RC abutment

BACK

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Review the Technique本章回顾

  • 桥梁的发展

  • 桥梁的基本组成与分类

  • 桥梁的若干名词术语

  • SCHOOL OF TRANSPORTATION, WUT PRODUCED BY:X J CHEN


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