Lorenz curve
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Lorenz Curve. Inequitable Distribution of Income Ben Braid. New Zealand Net Worth Lorenz curve. Percentile of Net Worth. New Zealand’s Lorenz Curve In between the Line of Equality and the Lorenz curve is the Area of Inequality

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Lorenz Curve

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Lorenz curve

Lorenz Curve

Inequitable Distribution of Income

Ben Braid


New zealand net worth lorenz curve

New Zealand Net Worth Lorenz curve

Percentile of Net Worth

  • New Zealand’s Lorenz Curve

  • In between the Line of Equality and the Lorenz curve is the Area of Inequality

  • In New Zealand the bottom 50% of individuals have 5.2% of the Net Wealth while the upper 5.2% of individuals have 50% of the wealth

100%

Line of Equality

Lorenz Curve

50%

Area of Inequality

5.2%

50%

94.8%

100%

Percentile of Individuals


Lorenz curve

Policy One – Working for Families

  • Poor families – receive benefit

  • Increases Income

  • Therefore greater opportunity to succeed at school. This is due to a healthier life style leading to improved school attendance

  • Current and future income of poor families increases moving them closer to the line of equality

Lorenz Curve A


Impact on working for families

Impact on working for families

Equity

By increasing the income of low to middle income earners with dependable children, this group seen as poor by society will now earn a relatively higher income. This will move the income of the poor closer to the line of equality thus being more equitable in the eyes of society.

Efficiency

Due to the policy being a ‘targeted’ policy (benefits based on assets and incomes of the families) it reduces the drive of the individual within the working family to increase there current level of assets and income as they may move out of the benefit bracket. As the individual has no motivation to improve income due to government rewards outweighing personal rewards a decrease in efficiency occurs. Under motivated human capital causes a decrease in efficiency resulting in a decrease in output.


Lorenz curve

Policy Two – Progressive Tax system

  • Individuals are taxed using marginal tax brackets.

  • This essentially makes the poor relatively richer therefore distributing income in a more equitable way.

Lorenz Curve A


Impact of progressive tax policy

Impact of Progressive Tax policy

Equity

The progressive Tax brackets move the Lorenz curve closer to the Line of Equality. Both High and Low income earners are taxed proportionally to their income therefore redistributing income in a more equitable way (positive equity effect).

It is vertically equitable because different people with different incomes are taxed proportionally.

It is horizontally inequitable as capital gains are not taxed.

Efficiency

Due to the marginal Tax brackets where higher income is taxed at a proportionally higher rate, lower income earners have no desire to increase their income as that section of their income over the tax bracket will be taxed at the proportionally higher rate. Therefore workers will be unmotivated to increase their income so productivity will decrease (negative efficiency effect).


Conclusion

Conclusion

In conclusion the policy that offers the best solution is the Working for Families policy.

This is because of both the short term and long term effects of the policy.

Short Term - The lower income earners with a family receive benefit from the government meaning they will have a relatively higher disposable income therefore moving them closer to the line of Equality.

Long Term – As the disposable income of the lower income families increase the opportunity to succeed at school and tertiary study becomes greater due to healthier living and increased attendance. In turn this leads to better qualifications and in the future a greater number of human resources (skilled workers). This expansion is able to stimulate positive economic growth.


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