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Islam Expands. Chapter 10 Section 2. Muhammad’s Successors. Muhammad did not name successor or how to choose one Muslim community elected Abu-Bakr (loyal friend) as first caliph Caliph = “successor” or “deputy” New political formation = “caliphate”.

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Islam expands

Islam Expands

Chapter 10 Section 2

Muhammad s successors
Muhammad’s Successors

  • Muhammad did not name successor or how to choose one

  • Muslim community elected Abu-Bakr (loyal friend) as first caliph

    • Caliph = “successor” or “deputy”

    • New political formation = “caliphate”

Muhammad’s father-in-law, Abu Bakr, was named the khalifa (caliph) or “Successor”

Rightly guided caliphs
Rightly Guided Caliphs

  • “Rightly Guided Caliphs” = the first four caliphs

    • Abu-Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali

    • All personally had known Muhammad

    • Known as “rightly guided” because they used Muhammad’s actions and the Qur’an as guides for leadership

Concept of jihad
Concept of Jihad

  • jihad means “striving” – inner struggle against evil

    • Also used to mean armed struggle against unbelievers

  • Abu-Bakr used jihad to encourage & justify the expansion of Islam

Muslim conquests
Muslim Conquests

  • Muslims eventually conquered Syria, lower Egypt, Sassanid Empire (Persia)

  • Stretched from Atlantic Ocean in west to Indus River in the east

  • Treatment of Conquered Peoples

    • Religious freedom (Qur’an forbids forced conversion)

    • Christians & Jews were “people of the book”

    • Non-Muslims paid poll tax & certain restrictions

Reasons for success
Reasons for Success

  • 1) Desire to spread their faith

    • Victories seen as sign of Allah’s support

    • Fought to defend Islam

  • 2) Armies were well disciplined & expertly commanded

  • 3) Non-followers of Christianity & Zoroastrianism were persecuted by Byzantines & Sassanid Empires, so they welcomed Muslim invaders

Internal conflict crisis
Internal Conflict = Crisis

  • Difficult to keep unified rule

  • Uthman murdered – civil war erupts – struggle for power

    • Ali (relative of Muhammad) v. Muawiya (governor of Syria)

    • Ali was assassinated

  • Umayyadfamily came to power

    • Moved capital to Damascus

    • Surrounded with wealth, ceremony

Civil war the umayyads
Civil War – the Umayyads

  • Umayyads came to power & moved Muslim capital to Damascus

  • Split between Shi’a and Sunni Muslims

Split of islam
Split of Islam

  • Division over Umayyad rule, office of caliph

  • The Shi’a believed the caliph should be descendant of Muhammad

  • The Sunni believed that a caliph could be a ruler who followed the Sunna (Muhammad’s example), not necessarily a descendant

  • Both accused of misinterpreting the Qur’an

  • The Sufirejected the luxurious life of the Umayyads

Growth of muslim empire
Growth of Muslim Empire

  • Umayyad caliphate set up in Spain

    • Berbers (Muslims from N. Africa) also settled in Spain

  • AbbasidsConsolidate Power - replaced the Umayyads as ruler of the empire

    • Moved the capital to Baghdad (key for trade)

    • Developed strong bureaucracy

Rival groups divide muslim lands
Rival Groups Divide Muslim Lands

  • Abbasids failed to keep control

  • Independent Muslim states arose

    • For example, the Fatimid Caliphate (Shi’a who claimed descent from Muhammad’s daughter Fatima)

  • The Abbasid caliphate was connected to the independent Muslims through religion, trade, and economy

Muslim trade
Muslim Trade

  • Muslim Empire had access to both land and sea trade

  • Single language (Arabic) and single currency (dinar) made travel & trade easier

  • Banks offered sakks, or letters of credit, to merchants

    • Merchant with sakk from one city could exchange it for cash in another city

    • In English, pronounced “check”

Muslim culture

Muslim Culture

Chapter 10 Section 3

Muslim society
Muslim Society

  • Cultural traditions combined with Arabic culture

  • Preserved Greek and Roman knowledge

    Today’s Goal: Explain the contributions of Muslim culture to the arts, literature, science, math, and philosophy

Muslim cities
Muslim Cities

  • Damascus, Córdoba, Cairo, Jerusalem

  • Cities symbolized strength of caliphate

  • Baghdad (Abbasid capital)

    • Extensive planning

    • Circular design of three protective walls

    • Palace of marble and stone at center

    • Main streets lined w/shops

Social classes women
Social Classes & Women

  • Upper class = Muslim at birth

  • Second class = converts to Islam

  • Third class = “protected peoples”

  • Lowest class = slaves

  • Qur’an stated men and women were equal in faith

    • shari’a gave women more economic & property rights

    • Yet still subservient to men

    • Some women were educated, participated in public life

Muslim scholarship knowledge
Muslim Scholarship & Knowledge

  • The Prophet emphasized learning

  • House of Wisdom = library, academy, & translation center in Baghdad

    • Scholars of various cultures worked together to translate texts

Muslim literature
Muslim Literature

  • Qur’an is standard for all Arabic literature

    • Poets praised the Prophet, Islam, & caliphs

    • Nature & pleasures of life

  • Ten Thousand and One Nights

    • Collection of fairy tales, parables, legends

Muslim philosophy
Muslim Philosophy

  • Preserved works of Greek philosophers

  • “Ideal Man” – blend of cultures

    The ideal and morally perfect man should be of East Persian derivation, Arabic in faith, of Iraqi education, a Hebrew in astuteness, a disciple of Christ in conduct, as pious as a Greek monk, a Greek in the individual sciences, an Indian in the interpretation of all mysteries, but lastly and especially a Sufi in his whole spiritual life.

    Ikhwan as-Safa, The World of Islam

Muslim art architecture
Muslim Art & Architecture

  • Muslims discouraged images of living things

  • Calligraphy  beautiful handwriting

  • Geometric patterns in woodwork, glass, ceramics, textiles

  • Architecture represents cultural blending

    • Great Mosque of Damascus – dome & vaulted ceiling

    • Great Mosque of Córdoba – two tiers of arches to support ceiling

Muslim medicine
Muslim Medicine

  • Persian scholar al-Razi (Rhazes) – great physician

    • Comprehensive Book, Treatise on Smallpox & Measles

    • Patients recover quickly if breathed clean air

Muslim math science
Muslim Math & Science

  • Solve problems by conducting experiments in lab settings

  • Al-Khwarizmi  al-jabr (algebra)

  • Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen)  Optics

    • Revolutionary ideas about vision

  • Astronomy  needed for religious purposes

    • Muslim observatories

    • Astrolabe (navigation)

    • Armillary sphere