Islam expands
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 26

Islam Expands PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 102 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Islam Expands. Chapter 10 Section 2. Muhammad’s Successors. Muhammad did not name successor or how to choose one Muslim community elected Abu-Bakr (loyal friend) as first caliph Caliph = “successor” or “deputy” New political formation = “caliphate”.

Download Presentation

Islam Expands

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Islam expands

Islam Expands

Chapter 10 Section 2


Muhammad s successors

Muhammad’s Successors

  • Muhammad did not name successor or how to choose one

  • Muslim community elected Abu-Bakr (loyal friend) as first caliph

    • Caliph = “successor” or “deputy”

    • New political formation = “caliphate”

Muhammad’s father-in-law, Abu Bakr, was named the khalifa (caliph) or “Successor”


Rightly guided caliphs

Rightly Guided Caliphs

  • “Rightly Guided Caliphs” = the first four caliphs

    • Abu-Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali

    • All personally had known Muhammad

    • Known as “rightly guided” because they used Muhammad’s actions and the Qur’an as guides for leadership


Concept of jihad

Concept of Jihad

  • jihad means “striving” – inner struggle against evil

    • Also used to mean armed struggle against unbelievers

  • Abu-Bakr used jihad to encourage & justify the expansion of Islam


Muslim conquests

Muslim Conquests

  • Muslims eventually conquered Syria, lower Egypt, Sassanid Empire (Persia)

  • Stretched from Atlantic Ocean in west to Indus River in the east

  • Treatment of Conquered Peoples

    • Religious freedom (Qur’an forbids forced conversion)

    • Christians & Jews were “people of the book”

    • Non-Muslims paid poll tax & certain restrictions


Reasons for success

Reasons for Success

  • 1) Desire to spread their faith

    • Victories seen as sign of Allah’s support

    • Fought to defend Islam

  • 2) Armies were well disciplined & expertly commanded

  • 3) Non-followers of Christianity & Zoroastrianism were persecuted by Byzantines & Sassanid Empires, so they welcomed Muslim invaders


Internal conflict crisis

Internal Conflict = Crisis

  • Difficult to keep unified rule

  • Uthman murdered – civil war erupts – struggle for power

    • Ali (relative of Muhammad) v. Muawiya (governor of Syria)

    • Ali was assassinated

  • Umayyadfamily came to power

    • Moved capital to Damascus

    • Surrounded with wealth, ceremony


Civil war the umayyads

Civil War – the Umayyads

  • Umayyads came to power & moved Muslim capital to Damascus

  • Split between Shi’a and Sunni Muslims


Split of islam

Split of Islam

  • Division over Umayyad rule, office of caliph

  • The Shi’a believed the caliph should be descendant of Muhammad

  • The Sunni believed that a caliph could be a ruler who followed the Sunna (Muhammad’s example), not necessarily a descendant

  • Both accused of misinterpreting the Qur’an

  • The Sufirejected the luxurious life of the Umayyads


Growth of muslim empire

Growth of Muslim Empire

  • Umayyad caliphate set up in Spain

    • Berbers (Muslims from N. Africa) also settled in Spain

  • AbbasidsConsolidate Power - replaced the Umayyads as ruler of the empire

    • Moved the capital to Baghdad (key for trade)

    • Developed strong bureaucracy


Rival groups divide muslim lands

Rival Groups Divide Muslim Lands

  • Abbasids failed to keep control

  • Independent Muslim states arose

    • For example, the Fatimid Caliphate (Shi’a who claimed descent from Muhammad’s daughter Fatima)

  • The Abbasid caliphate was connected to the independent Muslims through religion, trade, and economy


Muslim trade

Muslim Trade

  • Muslim Empire had access to both land and sea trade

  • Single language (Arabic) and single currency (dinar) made travel & trade easier

  • Banks offered sakks, or letters of credit, to merchants

    • Merchant with sakk from one city could exchange it for cash in another city

    • In English, pronounced “check”


Muslim culture

Muslim Culture

Chapter 10 Section 3


Muslim society

Muslim Society

  • Cultural traditions combined with Arabic culture

  • Preserved Greek and Roman knowledge

    Today’s Goal: Explain the contributions of Muslim culture to the arts, literature, science, math, and philosophy


Muslim cities

Muslim Cities

  • Damascus, Córdoba, Cairo, Jerusalem

  • Cities symbolized strength of caliphate

  • Baghdad (Abbasid capital)

    • Extensive planning

    • Circular design of three protective walls

    • Palace of marble and stone at center

    • Main streets lined w/shops


Social classes women

Social Classes & Women

  • Upper class = Muslim at birth

  • Second class = converts to Islam

  • Third class = “protected peoples”

  • Lowest class = slaves

  • Qur’an stated men and women were equal in faith

    • shari’a gave women more economic & property rights

    • Yet still subservient to men

    • Some women were educated, participated in public life


Muslim scholarship knowledge

Muslim Scholarship & Knowledge

  • The Prophet emphasized learning

  • House of Wisdom = library, academy, & translation center in Baghdad

    • Scholars of various cultures worked together to translate texts


Muslim literature

Muslim Literature

  • Qur’an is standard for all Arabic literature

    • Poets praised the Prophet, Islam, & caliphs

    • Nature & pleasures of life

  • Ten Thousand and One Nights

    • Collection of fairy tales, parables, legends


Muslim philosophy

Muslim Philosophy

  • Preserved works of Greek philosophers

  • “Ideal Man” – blend of cultures

    The ideal and morally perfect man should be of East Persian derivation, Arabic in faith, of Iraqi education, a Hebrew in astuteness, a disciple of Christ in conduct, as pious as a Greek monk, a Greek in the individual sciences, an Indian in the interpretation of all mysteries, but lastly and especially a Sufi in his whole spiritual life.

    Ikhwan as-Safa, The World of Islam


Muslim art architecture

Muslim Art & Architecture

  • Muslims discouraged images of living things

  • Calligraphy  beautiful handwriting

  • Geometric patterns in woodwork, glass, ceramics, textiles

  • Architecture represents cultural blending

    • Great Mosque of Damascus – dome & vaulted ceiling

    • Great Mosque of Córdoba – two tiers of arches to support ceiling


Muslim medicine

Muslim Medicine

  • Persian scholar al-Razi (Rhazes) – great physician

    • Comprehensive Book, Treatise on Smallpox & Measles

    • Patients recover quickly if breathed clean air


Muslim math science

Muslim Math & Science

  • Solve problems by conducting experiments in lab settings

  • Al-Khwarizmi  al-jabr (algebra)

  • Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen)  Optics

    • Revolutionary ideas about vision


Islam expands

  • Astronomy  needed for religious purposes

    • Muslim observatories

    • Astrolabe (navigation)

    • Armillary sphere


  • Login