The Responsible Use of Alcohol
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The Responsible Use of Alcohol. Alcohol Use Patterns. 49% of Americans abstain from alcohol use 22% are considered “light” drinkers 29% are considered “risky” drinkers. Alcohol is responsible for more than 70,000 deaths per year among Americans

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Alcohol use patterns
Alcohol Use Patterns

  • 49% of Americans abstain from alcohol use

  • 22% are considered “light” drinkers

  • 29% are considered “risky” drinkers



Uwg statistics from 2008
UWG Statistics from 2008 among Americans

  • 77% of the students consumed alcohol in the past year

  • 62% in the past 30 days

  • 58% under age 21 in the past 30 days

  • 38% reported binge drinking in previous two weeks

  • 93% believe the average student uses alcohol once a week or more


So not everyone is a drunk
So . . . Not everyone is a drunk! among Americans

Reality is 62% of UWG students are not binge drinking every Thursday night!

38% haven’t even drunk in the past 30 days!



Binge drinking
Binge Drinking among Americans

  • A common form of alcohol abuse on college campuses

  • Defined as

    • having 5 or more drinks in a row for men,

    • 4 or more for women on at least one occasion in the last two weeks


Binge drinking1
Binge Drinking among Americans

  • Kills dozens of college students each year in this country

  • Fast, heavy drinking can easily raise BAC levels quickly, leading to unconsciousness and death


Recent national report on college binge drinking
Recent National Report on among AmericansCollege Binge Drinking

  • 44% of college aged students reported binge drinking

  • 44% also reported alcohol abuse as the largest problem on college campuses

  • 1,700 alcohol related deaths in 2001


Recent national report on college binge drinking1
Recent National Report on among AmericansCollege Binge Drinking

  • College aged students reported

    • 696,000 assaults

    • 599,000 injuries

    • 97,000 sexual assaults/date rapes



Problem
Problem??? among Americans

  • One solo cup of “hunch punch” is NOT one drink!

    • In reality it could contain enough alcohol to equal 5-6 drinks!


Nature of alcoholic beverages
Nature of Alcoholic Beverages among Americans

  • Consumable form of alcohol – ethyl

  • Fermentation:

    • process where sugars are converted into alcohol by yeast

  • Proof:

    • alcohol concentration that is twice the percentage concentration: 100 proof=50% alcohol

Alcohol is a depressant!


Nature of alcoholic beverages1
Nature of Alcoholic Beverages among Americans

  • Beer = 3-6%

  • Table wine = 9-14%

    • Fortified wine = 20%

  • Hard liquors = 35-50%

  • Alcohol provides 7 calories per gram

    • 1 beer = 150 calories


Factors that affect alcohol absorption and blood alcohol concentration levels

Strength of beverage among Americans

Number of drinks consumed

Speed of consumption

Carbonation of the beverage

Presence of food

Body weight

Body fat percentage

Gender

Factors that Affect Alcohol Absorption and Blood Alcohol Concentration Levels


Metabolism and excretion
Metabolism and Excretion among Americans

  • Once alcohol reaches the stomach

    • 20% is absorbed into the bloodstream

    • 75% is absorbed through the upper part of the small intestine

  • The liver is the main site for alcohol metabolism

    • 2-10% of ingested alcohol is not metabolized by the liver or other tissues, it is excreted by the lungs, kidneys, and sweat glands unchanged


Blood alcohol concentration
Blood Alcohol Concentration among Americans

  • Percentage of alcohol in a measured amount of blood

    • Measured from exhaled breath or blood sample

    • Depends upon the balance between the rate of alcohol absorption and the rate of alcohol metabolism


The immediate effects of alcohol
The Immediate Effects of Alcohol among Americans

  • At .03 - .05%

    • relaxation and jovial

  • At .10%

    • physical impairment

  • At .20%

    • uncontrollable movement

  • At .35%

    • coma and possible death

  • Legal limit is .08% for DUI


Uwg student perceptions of effects of alcohol
UWG Student Perceptions of among AmericansEffects of Alcohol

  • 69% breaks the ice

  • 69% enhances social activity

  • 63% gives people something to talk about

  • 71% gives people something to do

  • 60% allows people to have more fun

  • 54% facilitates connection with peers

  • 48% facilitates male bonding

  • 47% facilitates sexual opportunity


  • 41% facilitates female bonding among Americans

  • 40% easier to deal with stress

  • 28% makes women sexier

  • 17% makes men sexier

  • 16% makes food taste better

  • 24% thought a sexual partner was not attractive because he/she was drunk

  • 33%reported some form of public misconduct at least once during the past year as a result of drinking


Alcohol hangover vs alcohol poisoning
Alcohol Hangover vs. among AmericansAlcohol Poisoning

  • Hangover

    • is probably due to a combination of toxic products of alcohol breakdown, dehydration, and hormonal effects

  • Symptoms

    • Headaches, Fatigue, Impaired mental functioning

  • Alcohol poisoning

    • is consuming large amounts of alcohol in a short amount of time, raising BAC to dangerous levels which could result in death due to:

      • CNS depression

      • Respiratory failure

      • Pulmonary edema


Warning signs among Americansof

Alcohol Poisoning

  • Person cannot be roused (unconscious)

  • Vomiting

  • Seizures

  • Slow breathing

    • (fewer than 8 breaths per minute)

  • Irregular breathing

    • (10 seconds or more between breaths)

  • Hypothermia (low body temperature),

    • bluish skin color or paleness

  • Self defecation


Other dangerous alcohol use combination
Other among Americans Dangerous Alcohol Use Combination

  • Using Alcohol with Other Drugs

  • Impaired judgment from Alcohol leading to:

    • Injuries, Violence, Suicide

  • Alcohol and Sexual Decision-making

    • Unplanned sexual activity, STD’s, Accidental pregnancies

  • Drinking and Driving

    • Dose-response function



  • Fetal alcohol syndrome
    Fetal Alcohol Syndrome among Americans

    • Fetus is exposed to alcohol in a slower manner than an adult via the placenta

    • Damage results in

      • mental retardation

      • low birth weight,

      • facial abnormalities,

      • widely spaced eyes, and

      • a much smaller head.

    • Full expression rate:

      • 1-2 out of 1000 births


    Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: among Americans


    Alcohol abuse and dependence
    Alcohol Abuse and Dependence among Americans

    • Alcohol Abuse

      • recurrent use that has negative consequences that result in personal forms of difficulties

    • Alcohol Dependence (Alcoholism)

      • is a result of needing alcohol on a regular basis to function, involving physical tolerance and withdrawal symptoms


    Problem drinking and alcoholism
    Problem Drinking and Alcoholism among Americans

    • Problem drinking

      • alcohol pattern where the behavior creates personal difficulties or difficulties for others

    • Co-dependence

      • relationships that support an alcoholic


    Health effects of alcoholism
    Health Effects of Alcoholism among Americans

    • Withdrawal symptoms

      • can be acute (shakes or jitters) to more severe i.e. seizures, delirium tremens (DTs)

    • Alcoholism takes a heavy physical toll upon the body’s organs and tissues as well as causing psychological problems

    • Socially, it is a serious problem to families and friends

    • Economically, it effects employment and healthcare costs


    Causes of alcoholism
    Causes of Alcoholism among Americans

    • The precise causes are unknown, however the following factors are probably involved:

      • Genetics

      • Personality

      • Social factors

      • Environment

      • Family structure


    Treatment for alcoholism
    Treatment for Alcoholism among Americans

    • Rehab centers

    • Hospitals

    • Medication

    • Counseling

    • Support groups


    Alcoholism gender ethnicity
    Alcoholism: Gender & Ethnicity among Americans

    • Among White American men

      • drinking starts in the teenage years and progresses into late adulthood

    • Women tend to become alcoholics much later

      • In their 40’s or 50’s

    • African-Americans

      • tend to have more health related problems with alcohol use

    • Latino men

      • Have the following common elements: drunk driving and cirrhosis

    • American Indians and Alaskans

      • tend to abuse alcohol early in life


    Alcohol website resources
    Alcohol Website Resources among Americans

    • Al-Anon Family Group Headquarters

      www.al-anon.alateen.org

    • Alcoholics Anonymous

      www.alcoholics-anonymous.org

    • Alcohol Treatment Referral Hotline

      800-ALCOHOL

    • The College Alcohol Study

      www.hsph.harvard.edu/cas

    • College Drinking Prevention

      www.collegedrinkingprevention.gov/students


    • www.AlcoholScreening.org among Americans

    • www.bacchusgamma.org

    • www.hsph.harvard.edu/cas/

    • www.hadenough.org

    • www.health.org

    • www.drugabuse.gov

    • The Gordie Foundation with video clip HAZE

      www.gordie.org


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