Irrigation water conveyance
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Irrigation Water Conveyance. After completing this session the student will be aware of the features of irrigation water conveyance systems and how they may affect on farm water management. Conveyance System Requirements.

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Irrigation Water Conveyance

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Irrigation water conveyance

Irrigation Water Conveyance

After completing this session the student will be aware of the features of irrigation water conveyance systems and how they may affect on farm water management.


Conveyance system requirements

Conveyance System Requirements

  • Deliver water to every part of the irrigated area at a rate and elevation that permits proper operation of the application system;

  • Be compatible with the application equipment;

  • Convey the water as economically, efficiently and safely as possible; and

  • Be accessible for Operation and Maintenance.

JEA 7-12-05


On farm conveyance system

On Farm Conveyance System

JEA 7-12-05


Conveyance system schematic

Conveyance System Schematic

JEA 7-12-05


Conveyance efficiency

Conveyance Efficiency

“In the Western States, an estimated one-third to one-half of the water diverted for irrigation is lost between the source and point of use”

NRCS NEH Part 623, Chapter 2, Irrigation Water Requirements

JEA 7-12-05


Conveyance losses

Conveyance Losses

  • Operational spills

  • Seepage

  • Consumptive Use by vegetation & evaporation

  • Leakage around structures

JEA 7-12-05


Typical conveyance efficiencies

Source to Farm65% - 95%

Farm to Field70% - 90%

Source to Field30% - 65%

Typical Conveyance Efficiencies

JEA 7-12-05


Distribution efficiency study

Distribution Efficiency Study

1988-1990, Riverton Unit - Wind River Project, USBOR, (72,000 acres)

JEA 7-12-05


Conveyance system components

Conveyance System Components

  • Open Channels

  • Pipelines

  • Conveyance Structures

    • Diversions & Pumps

    • Headgates, Wasteways, Division Boxes, Turnouts …

    • Water Measurement Devices

    • Check & Grade Control Structures

    • Flumes, Siphons & Culverts

JEA 7-12-05


Diversion dam or pumps

Diversion Dam or Pumps

They should:

  • Provide the Required Flow Rate

  • Provide the Required Elevation or Pressure

  • Perform Properly over the entire Irrigation Season

  • Accommodate Fish or Other Resource Concerns

  • Perform without Excessive Operation & Maintenance

  • And if they don’t:

  • Plan repairs, replacement; or

  • Develop an IWM strategy to deal with the constraint.

JEA 7-12-05


Diversion dam

Diversion Dam

JEA 7-12-05


Diversion dam1

Diversion Dam

JEA 7-12-05


Diversion dam2

Diversion Dam

JEA 7-12-05


Headgates turnouts other ditch structures

Headgates, Turnouts & Other Ditch Structures

They should:

  • Provide the required flow rate & elevation or pressure

  • Screen excessive or undesirable debris

  • Accommodate expected sedimentation

  • Provide opportunity for water measurement

  • Perform without excessive Operation & Maintenance

  • And if they don’t:

  • Plan repairs, replacement; or

  • Develop IWM strategy to deal with the constraint.

JEA 7-12-05


Headgates turnouts

Headgates & Turnouts

JEA 7-12-05


Headgates turnouts1

Headgates & Turnouts

JEA 7-12-05


Headgates turnouts other structures

Headgates, Turnouts & Other Structures

JEA 7-12-05


Headgates turnouts other structures1

Headgates, Turnouts & Other Structures

JEA 7-12-05


Headgates turnouts other ditch structures1

Headgates, Turnouts & Other Ditch Structures

JEA 7-12-05


Other ditch structures

Other Ditch Structures

JEA 7-12-05


Other ditch structures1

Other Ditch Structures

JEA 7-12-05


Other ditch structures2

Other Ditch Structures

JEA 7-12-05


Other ditch structures3

Other Ditch Structures

JEA 7-12-05


Canals ditches

Canals & Ditches

They should:

  • Have capacity for the required flow rate

  • Screen excessive or undesirable debris

  • Accommodate expected sedimentation

  • Limit Losses to an acceptable amount

  • Perform without excessive Operation & Maintenance

  • And if they don’t:

  • Plan repairs, replacement; or

  • Develop IWM strategy to deal with the constraint.

JEA 7-12-05


Canals ditches1

Canals & Ditches

Features:

  • Used for main canal, laterals & on farm transport

  • Open channel, gravity flow

  • Water surface controls the delivery elevation

  • Natural earth or lined channels

JEA 7-12-05


Canals ditches2

Canals & Ditches

JEA 7-12-05


Canals ditches3

Canals & Ditches

JEA 7-12-05


Canals ditches4

Canals & Ditches

Benefits:

  • Accommodate small to large flows

  • May accommodate large debris

  • Many alternatives for water measurement

  • Low to moderate construction cost (unlined)

  • Intercept runoff & groundwater

  • May provide some storage capacity

  • May support some riparian functions

JEA 7-12-05


Canals ditches5

Canals & Ditches

Disadvantages:

  • Must have adequate slope

  • May require checks & grade control structures

  • Prone to operation waste (up to 50% pass through)

  • Seepage, vegetative & evaporation losses

  • Seepage may damage adjacent land & property

  • May occupy a large area & require crossing structures

JEA 7-12-05


Canals ditches6

Canals & Ditches

Disadvantages: cont.

  • May provide source of weed seed

  • Susceptible to erosion, sedimentation, flood damage, & rodents

  • Higher maintenance than pipelines

  • Poor maintenance reduces capacity

  • Can be a safety concern

JEA 7-12-05


Canals ditches7

Canals & Ditches

JEA 7-12-05


Typical unlined canal ditch losses

Seepage Loss0.2 – 6 ft3/ft2/day

Typical Unlined Canal/Ditch Losses

Loss to Ditch-side Vegetation0.5% - 1% per mile

Loss to Ditch Evaporation~ <0.5% per mile

JEA 7-12-05


Ditch canal lining alternatives

Ditch Canal Lining Alternatives

JEA 7-12-05


Ditch canal lining alternatives1

Ditch Canal Lining Alternatives

  • Traditional Canal Linings ($1 to $10 / sq ft)

    • Compacted Clay

    • Concrete Lining

    • Buried Geomembrane

    • Exposed Geomembranes

    • Concrete Covered Geomembranes

    • Spray-applied Membranes

  • Reduce seepage loss by 90 – 95%

  • Service life 20 to 50 years.

  • JEA 7-12-05


    Ditch canal lining alternatives2

    Ditch Canal Lining Alternatives

    PAM Canal Treatment

    • Cost ~ $.005 to $0.02 / sq ft

    • May reduce seepage lossby 30% – 50%

    • May require annual treatment

    • Doesn’t work in all situations

    JEA 7-12-05


    Pipelines

    Pipelines

    They should:

    • Deliver the required flow at the required elevation/pressure

    • Provide opportunity for water measurement

    • Perform without excessive operation & maintenance

    • And if they don’t:

    • Plan needed maintenance, replacement; or

    • Develop IWM strategy to deal with the constraints

    JEA 7-12-05


    Pipelines1

    Pipelines

    Features:

    • Gravity or Pressure Flow

    • Available head / pressure controls delivery elevation

    • Above ground or underground installations

    • PVC, PE, Concrete, Steel & Aluminum materials

    JEA 7-12-05


    Pipelines2

    Pipelines

    Benefits:

    • Less dependent on topography than ditches

    • Greater flow control = less operational waste

    • Very small water losses (0.01 – 0.15 ft3/ft2)

    • Little to no loss of land use

    • Eliminate weed seed production

    • Less susceptible to environmental damage

    • Typically fewer maintenance & safety concerns

    JEA 7-12-05


    Pipelines3

    Pipelines

    JEA 7-12-05


    Pipelines4

    Pipelines

    JEA 7-12-05


    Pipelines5

    Pipelines

    JEA 7-12-05


    Pipelines6

    Pipelines

    JEA 7-12-05


    Pipelines7

    Pipelines

    JEA 7-12-05


    Pipelines8

    Pipelines

    Disadvantages:

    • Moderate to high cost compared to unlined ditch

    • Not feasible for large flows

    • Must screen out debris and prevent sedimentation

    • Fewer and more expensive alternatives for water measurement

    • Provides no riparian function values

    JEA 7-12-05


    Pipelines9

    Pipelines

    JEA 7-12-05


    Summary

    Summary

    “No irrigation system is worth a hill of beans if the water is not available to the crop at the time that the plants require it”

    Questions?

    JEA 7-12-05


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