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Surviving. The Drought. Background . High Corn Prices Scarce hay supply Drought Heat. Impact on-. Summer Grazing Winter Feed Water Supply Nitrates / Poisonous Plants. What do I do to meet needs when forage quality is not the issue but forage quantity is? DROUGHT!. Assess Situation.

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Surviving

The Drought


Background
Background

  • High Corn Prices

  • Scarce hay supply

  • Drought

  • Heat


Impact on
Impact on-

Summer Grazing

Winter Feed

Water Supply

Nitrates / Poisonous Plants


What do i do to meet needs when forage quality is not the issue but forage quantity is drought
What do I do to meet needs when forage quality is not the issue but forage quantity is?DROUGHT!


Assess situation
Assess Situation issue but forage quantity is?

  • Inventory Cattle

  • Inventory Feed Supply

  • Do the numbers match?


Animal management issues
Animal Management Issues issue but forage quantity is?

  • Pregnancy check, cull opens

  • Cull older, lower producing cows

  • Cull problem cows, disposition, arthritic, teat, udder and feet problems.


Conduct a feed and animal inventory
Conduct a feed and animal inventory issue but forage quantity is?

  • Use ASC-78 as a guide

  • Group animals by their needs

  • Compare how much feed is needed vs what is on hand


Allocation of hay to various classes of cattle based on quality

Quality of Hay issue but forage quantity is?

High

Low

Classes of Cattle

Young Calves

Weaned Calves

Replacements

Yearlings

Bred Heifers

2-year old Cows

Lactating Cows

Mature Cows, last 1/3 of gestation

Mature Bulls

Mature Pregnant Cows, first 2/3 of gestation

Allocation of Hay to Various Classes of Cattle Based on Quality


Nutritional quality of forages
Nutritional Quality of Forages issue but forage quantity is?

Source: Parish, Jane etal. 2007. Producer Guide to Coping with Drought Conditions


Approximate forage intake by beef cattle
Approximate forage intake by beef cattle issue but forage quantity is?


Are alternatives available on the farm
Are Alternatives Available on the Farm? issue but forage quantity is?

  • Corn that will make little or no grain yield

    • Chop it as silage

    • Do not graze or roll it for hay due to nitrates

  • Soybeans that will not set a bean

    • Graze or roll as hay, prevent bloat if grazing

    • Cut and roll when all leaves are still green


Soybeans for hay or silage
Soybeans for Hay or Silage issue but forage quantity is?

  • For silage, harvest at R6 stage

  • May need to wilt after cutting

  • Forage beans yield 3-4 tons/ac of DM

  • Grain beans yield 2-3 tons/ac of DM

  • Animals do not like the silage, eat 20% less than corn silage


Soybeans for hay or silage1
Soybeans for Hay or Silage issue but forage quantity is?

  • Hay may need to be harvested at a little earlier stage

  • Should be conditioned to crush stem or hard to cure

  • If too mature at cutting, will lose bean due to conditioning

  • May have feeding loss of up to 20% due to stem refusal


Baling or grazing corn stalks
Baling or Grazing Corn Stalks issue but forage quantity is?

  • 120 bu corn = 4 to 5 tons residue/acre

  • Cows consume grain, leaves, husks, cobs, stalks in order

  • 1 acre of stalks = 30 days grazing/cow with mineral, protein supplementation

  • Should be strip grazed

  • Baling leaves much of the best (grain, leaves, husks) in the field


Corn stalks
Corn Stalks issue but forage quantity is?

  • High Nitrates have been detected

  • Low quality feed

  • Requires protein and energy supplementation

  • Considerable waste in feeding

  • Stores poorly


What is an acre of stalks worth to graze
What is an Acre of Stalks Worth to Graze? issue but forage quantity is?


Performance of cows fed baled corn stalks
Performance of Cows fed Baled Corn Stalks issue but forage quantity is?


Cow rations with baled corn stalks
Cow Rations with Baled Corn Stalks issue but forage quantity is?


Cow rations with baled corn stalks1
Cow Rations with Baled Corn Stalks issue but forage quantity is?



Nutrient analysis
Nutrient Analysis issue but forage quantity is?


Baseline assumptions
Baseline Assumptions issue but forage quantity is?


Nutritional needs
Nutritional Needs issue but forage quantity is?


What will it take
What will it take? issue but forage quantity is?


What will it cost
What will it cost? issue but forage quantity is?


What can i pay for silage
What can I pay for silage? issue but forage quantity is?

  • Based on previous estimate, hay costs $178.31 per cow to winter

  • How many tons of corn silage will it take to winter them?

    => 3.06 tons

  • You can pay $58.27 per ton of corn silage if hay is $125 per ton


What can i pay for corn silage
What can I pay for Corn Silage? issue but forage quantity is?



Nutrient dense feeds such as grains, commodities, etc., are cheaper per unit of nutrient compared to hay.Be sure and compare on a dry matter basis.


Stretch hay with supplement
Stretch Hay with Supplement cheaper per unit of nutrient compared to hay.

Feed the hay on hand and buy supplement

  • Corn will replace hay at the rate of 1.0 lb. Corn can replace 2.0 lb. of hay


Alternative feeds
Alternative Feeds cheaper per unit of nutrient compared to hay.


How much hay does a cow have to have daily

How much hay does a cow have to have daily? cheaper per unit of nutrient compared to hay.


Limit fed corn vs hay rations for cows 3 year summary
Limit fed Corn vs. Hay Rations for Cows, 3 Year Summary cheaper per unit of nutrient compared to hay.


Limit feeding high energy rations for growing cattle
Limit Feeding High Energy Rations for Growing Cattle cheaper per unit of nutrient compared to hay.


Economics of corn vs hay to cows
Economics of Corn vs. Hay to Cows cheaper per unit of nutrient compared to hay.

*Corn purchased at $4.90 / bu from feed dealer

**Assumes 130 day winter feeding period


Assuming 130 day winter feeding
Assuming 130 Day Winter Feeding cheaper per unit of nutrient compared to hay.

  • Corn based may be cheaper depending on hay / corn price

  • Even if hay is cheaper, what is the goal?

  • Do we want to minimize costs, or maximize profit?

  • What is the value of a 21 lb increase in weaning weight and a 7% increase in conception rate?


Value of increased production
Value of Increased Production cheaper per unit of nutrient compared to hay.

*613# @ $100 / cwt, 634# @ $98 / cow


What about by products

What about by-products? cheaper per unit of nutrient compared to hay.


Limitations

Moisture content cheaper per unit of nutrient compared to hay.

Nutrient profile

Storage

Contaminants

Economics

Availability

Transportation

Limitations


Soy hulls
Soy Hulls cheaper per unit of nutrient compared to hay.

  • Excellent palatability

  • Less starch content than grains; therefore, less negative effect on forage utilization

  • Safer, less incidence of founder



Corn gluten
Corn Gluten Rations

  • By-product of soft drink industry

  • May be wet or dried

  • Corn gluten “feed” is around 22-25% CP; corn gluten meal is about 60% CP

  • Low starch


Corn gluten feed
Corn Gluten Feed Rations

  • High level of Sulfur (around 0.6%)

  • Limit to 50% of DMI due to its high sulfur content (Cu deficiency and polio)





Challenges
Challenges Rations

  • Transportation costs

  • Equipment needs for handling and storage

  • Rancidity


Methods of ensiling
Methods of Ensiling Rations

  • Silo Bags

  • Bunker Silos

  • Covered Piles



Advantages of a 70 30 mixture 50 50 dm basis
Advantages of a 70:30 Mixture Rations(50:50 DM basis)

  • Reduces dust in soybean hulls

  • Reduces seepage

  • Decreases CP content to 21%

  • Maintains high energy values


Ensiling wdg with crop residues
Ensiling WDG with Crop Residues Rations

  • On farm study

  • Blended corn stalks with MWDG

  • Blend was 60% DM

    • Cool at bag opening

    • Heated quickly

Garcia et al., 2004


Recommendations
Recommendations Rations

  • DM of blends should be no more than 50%

  • Drier blends do not preserve as well

  • Use of WDG over MWDG is preferred




Meet the nutritional needs
Meet the nutritional needs Rations

You must maintain body condition

  • Calving

  • Rebreeding


Energy deficiencies affect
Energy Deficiencies Affect Rations

  • Cow Rebreeding

  • Calf Health/Survival

  • Calf Growth Rate



Timing of deficiency influences effect
Timing of Deficiency Influences Effect Immunoglobulin Transfer to Calf

  • Pre-calving deficiency  days of post partum interval

  • Post-calving deficiency  % conception


Bcs and cow calf performance
BCS and Cow-calf Performance Immunoglobulin Transfer to Calf


Limit forage consumption
Limit Forage Consumption Immunoglobulin Transfer to Calf

  • Supplement Forage

  • Feed in Hay racks

  • Utilize all hay before moving rack

  • Delay feeding by 12 hours after roll eaten

  • Move feeding area to reduce mud


Rumensin for wintering cows
Rumensin for Wintering Cows Immunoglobulin Transfer to Calf

  • 50 – 60% of total cost is winter feed

  • Prevent and control coccidiosis

  • Improved feed efficiency

  • Feed in 1 lb of feed daily


Cost per day on Purchased Hay Immunoglobulin Transfer to Calf

Cost of hay per ton

Disappearance per day


Cost per day on Hulls / Hay Immunoglobulin Transfer to CalfSubstituting Concept (Late Winter)

Cost per ton of hay

Cost per ton of soy hulls

*Ration: 15 lbs soy hulls, 3 lbs grass hay


Cost per day on Hulls / Hay Immunoglobulin Transfer to CalfStretching Concept (Late Winter)

Cost per ton of hay

Cost per ton of soy hulls

*Ration: 11 lbs soy hulls, 10 lbs grass hay, w/ protein block


Restricting hay intake for cows nursing calves
Restricting Hay Intake for Cows Nursing Calves Immunoglobulin Transfer to Calf



Savings from Limit Hay Feeding GestationLactating Cows

* Hay valued @ $125 per ton


Savings from limit hay feeding dry cows
Savings from Limit Hay Feeding GestationDry Cows

* Hay valued @ $125 per ton


Early weaning of calves
Early Weaning of Calves Gestation

  • Decreases nutrient needs of the cow

  • Cheaper to feed calf than cow

  • Calves as old as 50 days can be weaned

  • Feed conversion 4 to 5 lbs/lb of gain

  • Good health practices

  • Must be able to reach feed and water





Feed cost of gain early weaning rations
Feed Cost of Gain GestationEarly Weaning Rations


Feed Cost of Gain Gestation(Pre-conditioning Rations)


KY Feeder Steers Gestation(Week of 9-27-07)


Sellout now and buy back in spring
Sellout now and buy back in spring? Gestation

  • Stock cows averaging near $650 this fall

  • Pairs ranged from $850 to $1,000 last spring

  • Wintering costs – (140 days @ $1.75) = $245

  • Mkt. value + winter feed savings = $850 to $950

  • Considerations

    • Prices for pairs this spring

    • Quality

    • Tax considerations


Warning

Warning Gestation

Consider all alternatives before you pay too much for poor-quality large round hay bales or other sources of roughage.


Long term adjustment
Long Term Adjustment Gestation

  • Store a surplus of hay (carry-over)

  • Consider some warm season grass pasture

  • Select cattle for reproductive efficiency

  • Calving season


Questions

QUESTIONS? Gestation


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