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Recognition of knowledge and skils and labour market. ph. d. Dejan Hozjan [email protected] Structure of presentation. Lifelong Learning Concept of RVC RVC and labour market RVC in OECD countries. Main question.

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Recognition of knowledge and skils and labour market

Recognition of knowledge and skils and labour market

ph. d. Dejan Hozjan

[email protected]


Structure of presentation

Structure of presentation

  • Lifelong Learning

  • Concept of RVC

  • RVC and labour market

  • RVC in OECD countries


Main question

Main question

Why has the recognition of non-formal and informal learning become a such a burning issue these days?


Answer

Answer ?

“Europe should become the most competitive and dynamic knowledge based economy in the world, capable of sustainable economic growth, with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion”

(Lisbon strategy 2000)

“There is an increasing evidence that countries realise that their qualifications systems need to be able to change and evolve to meet rapidly-changing needs in the world of learning and in the labour market” (OECD 2005)


Definition of lifelong learning

Definition of Lifelong Learning

“all learning activity undertaken throughout life, with the aim of improving knowledge, skills and competences within a personal, civic, social and/or employment-related perspective”

(Memorandum on Lifelong Learning 2000)


Definition and elements of lifelong learning

Formal

Learning

Informal

Learning

Learning

Systems

Non-Formal

Learning

Definition and elements of Lifelong Learning

100 AGE

0 AGE


Elements of lifelong learning

Elements of Lifelong Learning

Formal learningis normally acquired through organised and structured programmes delivered via schools and other providers and is recognised (certificate and diplomas) by means of qualifications or part of qualifications.


Formal education database

Formal education – database -


Elements of lifelong learning1

Elements of Lifelong Learning

Non-formal learningis acquired through organised programmes or courses but it is not typically recognised by means of qualifications nor does it lead to certification.


Nonformal education database

Nonformal education – database -


Nonformal education database1

Nonformal education – database -


Nonformal education database2

Nonformal education – database -


Nonformal education database3

Nonformal education – database -


Nonformal education database4

Nonformal education – database -


Nonformal education database5

Nonformal education – database -


Nonformal education database6

Nonformal education – database -


Elements of lifelong learning2

Elements of Lifelong Learning

Informal learningis acquired outside of organised programmes and courses and is picked up through daily activities relating to work, family, community, gender relations, village life, or leisure, sport and recreation. Informal learning is often referred to as experiential learning and can to a certain degree be understood as non-intentional and incidental.


Informal education database

Informal education – database -


Informal education database1

Informal education – database -


Informal education database2

Informal education – database -


Definition of recognition of learning

Definition of recognition of learning

Recognition of learning - The process of recording achievements of individuals arising from any kind of learning in any environment; the process aims to make visible an individual’s knowledge and skills so that they can combine and build on learning achieved and be regarded for it.


Correlation with others topics

Correlation with others topics

Accreditation – The process by which a (non-) governmental body evaluates the quality of an educational institution as a whole or of a specific educational programme in order to formally recognize it as having met certain predetermined minimal criteria or standards.


Correlation with others topics1

Correlation with others topics

Institutional Accreditation: The terms refer to the accreditation of the whole institution, including all its programmes, sites, and methods of delivery, without any implication as to the quality of the study programmes of the institution.

Accreditation of Prior Learning: The process by which individuals are awarded credit toward qualifications based on their prior learning and (sometimes) experience (also called experiential learning).


Correlation with others topics2

Correlation with others topics

Certification of competencies - The process of formally validating knowledge, know-how and/or competences acquired by an individual, follows a standard assessment procedure.


Correlation with others topics3

Correlation with others topics

Validation of non-formal and informal learning - The process of identifying, assessing and recognizing a wider range of skills and competences which people develop through their lives and in different contexts through education , work and participation in civil society organisations.


Knowledge economy

Knowledge Economy

“An economy that creates, adapts and uses knowledge effectively for its economic and social development.”


Knowledge economy1

Knowledge Economy

1. Ability to create, access and use knowledge is becoming fundamental determinant of global competitiveness

2. Key elements of “Knowledge Revolution”

- Increased codification of knowledge and development of new technologies

- Closer links with science base/increased rate of innovation/shorter product life cycles

- Increased importance of education and life-long learning

- Innovation and productivity increase more important in competitiveness & GDP growth

- Increased Globalization and Competition


Knowledge economy2

Knowledge Economy

Rep. of Korea

Difference attributed to knowledge

Difference due to physical and human capital

Ghana


Knowledge economy3

Knowledge Economy


Labour market

Labour market

Changes from 90¨s

New view on knowledge and production

Changes of jobs

From qualification to competences

Unemployment

Motivation for education


Labour market1

Labour market

Changes in Job SkillsUSA, 1960 - 1998


Labour market2

Labour market

Trend of employment


Rvc and labour market

RVC and labour market

Benefits of RVC

1. Entrance into formal sistem for further education or training

2. Improvement of the learners eligibility in the labour market

3. Certification by enterprises of prior lerning and experience

4. Transfer of skills between diferent spheres such as education, work and home

5. Enhancing universal basic education


Rvc of non formal and informal learning in oecd

RVC of non-formal and informal learning in OECD

1. National frameworks supporting the proces of RVC

1.1. Countries with a legally based framework

- Korea, Finland, France, Australia, Austria, Iceland, New Zeland, Benin, Maldives, Philippines, Netherlands, Equador

1.2. Countries without a national framework but with certification activities that follow the formal national curricula

- Czech Republic, Africa, Egypt, Togo, Oman, Rwanda


Rvc of non formal and informal learning in oecd1

RVC of non-formal and informal learning in OECD

1. National frameworks supporting the proces of RVC

1.3. Countries without a framework

- Macedonia, Poland, Latvia, Kenya,Madagascar, Tobago, Palestine, Germany


Rvc of non formal and informal learning in oecd2

RVC of non-formal and informal learning in OECD

2. Coordination modalities in RVC

2.1. RVC as a shared responsibility

- Iceland, Ireland, Norway, Netherlands, Korea, Mexico, Equador, France, Germany

2.2. Predominance of industry in RVC

- Australia, Tobago

2.3. Predominance of public authorities and government in RVC

- Macedonia, Bangladesh, Palestine


Rvc of non formal and informal learning in oecd3

RVC of non-formal and informal learning in OECD

3. Examples of programmes

3.1. Non-formal education programmes

- Philippine, Maldives, Bhutan, Togo, Palestine, Rwanda, Mexico

3.2. Programmes for entry into formal apprenticeship and training

- Benin, Iceland, Finland, Austria, France, Tobago, Iceland

3.3. Programmes counducted under comprehensive national qualification frameworks

- New Zeland


Rvc of non formal and informal learning in oecd4

RVC of non-formal and informal learning in OECD

3. Examples of programmes

3.4. Programmes adopting a more open and global approach

- Switzerland, Germany

3.5. Accreditation programmes for disadvantaged groups

- Egpyt, Ecuador

3.6. Work oriented programmes

- Cyprus, Czech Republic, Netherlands, Korea


Rvc of non formal and informal learning in oecd5

RVC of non-formal and informal learning in OECD

4. What kind of skills are acknowledged?

4.1. Recognition of skills in daily life settings

- Cambodia, Central African Republic, Ireland, Egypt, Switzerland, Australia, Tobago, Germany, Madagascar

4.2. Recognition of competences in the context of non-formal educational programmes

- Philippines, Cambodia, Cyprus, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Maldives, Oman, Malawi, Palestine, Rwanda, Mexico, Benin, Togo

4.3. Recognition of vocational skills

- Finland, Austria, Iceland, Korea, Surinam, France


Rvc of non formal and informal learning in oecd6

RVC of non-formal and informal learning in OECD

5. How should these competences be assesed?

5.1. Asessment methods

- Bangladesh, Benin, Cambodia, Republic Central Africa, Ecuador, France, Germany, Iceland, Ireland, Malawi, Maldives, Mexico, New Zeland, Oman, Palestine, Rwanda, Switzerland, Tobago,


Rvc of non formal and informal learning in oecd7

RVC of non-formal and informal learning in OECD

6. Benefits of RVC

6.1. Entrance into formal sistem for further education or training

-Iceland, Wsitzerland, Maldives, New Zeland, Palestine, Rwanda, France, Mexico, Iceland

6.2. Improvement of the learners eligibility in the labour market

- Norway, Benin, Malawi, Australia, Netherlands, Palestine, France, Iceland

6.3. Certification by enterprises of prior lerning and experience

- St. Lucia


Rvc of non formal and informal learning in oecd8

RVC of non-formal and informal learning in OECD

6. Benefits of RVC

6.4. Transfer of skills between diferent spheres such as education, work and home

- all European countries

6.5. Enhancing universal basic education

- Bhutan, Togo, Bangladesh, Egypt, Mexico


Conclusion

Conclusion

Limit of transferring highly developed structures of RVC in diference education sistems

2. Importance of metacompetences

3. Holistic approach by RVC of indiviual learning (not only labour market)

4. Problem of reduction competences on school outcomes


European qualifications framework

European qualifications framework

ph. d. Dejan Hozjan

[email protected]


Main question1

Main question

How will

the European Qualifications Framework

impact on national qualifications frameworks?


Structure of presentation1

Structure of presentation

  • Definitions of framework

  • History of EQF

  • Future of EQF

  • Types of “qualifications”frameworks

  • Definitions of EQF

  • Background of the EQF

  • Developing of the EQF


Structure of presentation2

Structure of presentation

  • Implications of the EQF

  • The EQF and HE

  • Developing of the NQF

  • Precondition of the NQF

  • Benefits of the NQF etc.


1 definition of framework

1. Definition of framework

Framework - logical structure for classifying and organizing complex information


1 definition of framework1

1. Definition of framework

Clasification - process, which classifies the units into groups so that the units in same group are similar and different from units in another groups


1 definition of framework2

1. Definition of framework

Goal of framework


1 definition of framework3

1. Definition of framework

Types of variables:

  • Continuous variables -A variable for which it is possible to find an intermediate value between any two values.

  • Discrete/categorial variables - A variable that is expressed in whole units or mutually exclusivecategories.


Recognition of knowledge and skils and labour market

2. History of EQF

1. England (reform of VET)

2. New Zealand, Australia, Scotland

3. Mexico, PacificIslands, West Indies, Namibia and Mauritius

4. South Africa (ILO, UNESCO, EU funds)

5. EU Members


Recognition of knowledge and skils and labour market

2. History of EQF

23.-24. March 2000

Lisbon strategy

“By 2010 the European Union must become the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion.”


Recognition of knowledge and skils and labour market

2. History of EQF

2004

  • Development started following requests from EU Member States, social partners and stakeholders for a reference tool to make qualifications more transparent

    2006

    - Blueprint (after Commission proposal) and wide consultation


Recognition of knowledge and skils and labour market

2. History of EQF

2008

- Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2008 on the establishment of the EQF for LLL


Recognition of knowledge and skils and labour market

3. Future of EQF

2010

  • the recommended target date for countries to relate their national qualifications systems to the EQF

    2012

  • to ensure that all individual qualification certificates bear a reference to the appropriate EQF level


4 types of qualifications frameworks

4. Types of “qualifications” frameworks

International “qualifications” frameworks

ISCED

(International Standard

Classificaction of Education - UNESCO)

ISCO

(International Standard

Classificaction of Occupations- ILO)

?


4 types of qualifications frameworks1

4. Types of “qualifications” frameworks

1. Individual work – 10. minutes

  • Answer on questions:

    • What is framework about?

    • How many levels have framework?

    • What are indicators of levels?

    • Why is this framework usefull?

2. Work in pairs – 5. minutes

- Discuss about the similarities and differences of “qualifications” frameworks


4 types of qualifications frameworks2

4. Types of “qualifications” frameworks

I S C E D


4 types of qualifications frameworks3

4. Types of “qualifications” frameworks

I S C E D


4 types of qualifications frameworks4

4. Types of “qualifications” frameworks

I S C E D


4 types of qualifications frameworks5

4. Types of “qualifications” frameworks

I S C E D


Recognition of knowledge and skils and labour market

The structure of the education system in Slovenia  


4 types of qualifications frameworks6

4. Types of “qualifications” frameworks

I S C O


4 types of qualifications frameworks7

4. Types of “qualifications” frameworks

I S C O


4 types of qualifications frameworks8

4. Types of “qualifications” frameworks

I S C O


4 types of qualifications frameworks9

4. Types of “qualifications” frameworks

ISCED

ISCO

EQF


Recognition of knowledge and skils and labour market

4. Types of “qualifications” frameworks

1. Individual work – 10. minutes

  • Compare European Qualifications Framework with ISCED or ISCO

2. Work in pairs – 5. minutes

- Discuss about the similarities and differences of EQF with ISCED or ISCO


Recognition of knowledge and skils and labour market

4. Types of “qualifications” frameworks


Recognition of knowledge and skils and labour market

4. Types of “qualifications” frameworks


Recognition of knowledge and skils and labour market

4. Types of “qualifications” frameworks

  • EQF is a translation device between national qualifications in Europe.

  • Levels of national qualifications will be placed at one of the eight reference levels.

  • Each of the 8 levels is defined by a set of descriptors indicating the learning outcomes relevant to qualifications at that level in any system of qualifications.

  • Learning outcomes are specified in three categories – as knowledge, skills and competence.

  • Focus on outcome, on what a person holding a particular qualification actually knows and is able to do.


5 definition of eqf

5. Definition of EQF

European Qualification Framework (EQF)is

’the single description, at multinational level of an educationalsystem, which is internationally understood and throughwhich all qualifications and other learning outcomes may be described and related to each other in a coherent way and which defines the relationship between education qualifications.’


5 definition of eqf1

5. Definition of EQF

’Meta- framework’ (like the EQF) is

“a classification instrument for levels of qualifications designed to act as a translationdevice between different national andsectoral qualifications systems. For thispurpose, the criteria for levels in a metaframeworkare written in a highly generalisedform and the EQF does not take over any ofthe established roles of national systems.”


The eqf as meta framework

5

9

1

3

2

4

8

6

5

3

6

4

2

1

7

3

2

8

7

5

6

1

4

The EQF as meta-framework

Country B

Country A

EQF

Qualifications

(A)

Qualifications

(B)


5 definition of eqf2

5. Definition of EQF

‘Sectoral qualifications framework’ is

“defined as the structures and processesestablished by a sector for the development and implementation of qualifications, including institutional arrangements, quality assurance, assessment and awarding procedures, skills recognition and othermechanisms that link education and training to the labour market.”


5 definition of eqf3

5. Definition of EQF

National qualifications framework (NQF) is

“aninstrument for the classification ofqualifications according to a set of criteria forspecified levels of learning achieved. Theyprovide a basis for improving transparency,access, progression and quality ofqualification in relation to the labour market and civil society.”


Recognition of knowledge and skils and labour market

5. Definition of EQF

  • Learning outcomesare statements of what alearner knows, understands and is able to doon completion of a learning process.

    Focus on what a learner knows and is ableto do; not what he is expected to know or do…


The eqf and learnig outcomes

Outputs

EQF emphasis is on

LEARNINGOUTCOMES

Learning

Inputs

Traditional reference

systems based on

INPUTS

The EQF and learnig outcomes


The a dvantages of the learning outcome approach

The advantages of the learning outcome approach

• Increased visibility of standards of qualifications through better definition ofqualifications.

• The content of learning programmes is more manageable.

• Learning programmes are more manageable.

• Increased transparency offered by learning outcomes.

• It is possible to bridge the different sectors.

• External benchmarking is facilitated.


Recognition of knowledge and skils and labour market

5. Definition of EQF

2. Knowledge is the outcome of the collectionand assimilation of information throughlearning.

In the EQF, knowledge is described as theoretical and/or factual.


Recognition of knowledge and skils and labour market

5. Definition of EQF

3. Skills are the ability to apply knowledge anduse know-how to complete tasks and solveproblems. In the EQF, skills are described ascognitive (use of logical, intuitive and creativethinking) and practical (involving manualdexterity and the use of methods, materials, tools and instruments).

Focus: Apply is critical, the focus on cognitive and practical is essential


Recognition of knowledge and skils and labour market

5. Definition of EQF

4. Competence' is the proven ability to useknowledge, skills and other abilities to performa function against a given standard in work orstudy situations and in professional and/orpersonal development.

In the EQF,‘competence’ is described in terms of responsibility and autonomy.


6 needs for eqf

6. Needs for EQF

  • Lack of transparency of qualifications and national or sectoral qualifications systems

  • Barriers to mobility between Member states and between systems

  • Barriers to the recognition of non-formal and informal learning


7 referencing principles

7. Referencing principles

  • All three dimensions KSC shall be taken into account.

  • Higher levels build on lower ones, lower levels are included in higher ones.

  • Are three dimensions are equally important.

  • Qualifications shall always be referenced to one level only, following the „best fit“ principle.

  • Curricula, laws, regulations and specifications of educational programmes shall serve as a basis for the referencing process.

  • Qualifications are to be referenced into the EQF, not people.


8 a ims and implications of eqf

8. Aims andimplications of EQF

Main aims:

  • promoting workers' and learners' mobility between countries and

  • facilitating lifelong learning

  • increase permeability of learning contexts

    Implications for:

  • education and training systems

  • labour market

  • industry and commerce

  • European citizens


Recognition of knowledge and skils and labour market

8. Aims andimplications of EQF

  • For Employers:

    • Better skilled workforce

    • More flexible workforce

    • Culturally different – Technically identical

    • Ability to chose skill level (EQF) for job


Recognition of knowledge and skils and labour market

8. Aims andimplications of EQF

  • For Workers:

    • Mobility

    • Confidence in qualifications

    • Broader job market cross sector/cross boarder

    • Skilled to do the job employers want


Recognition of knowledge and skils and labour market

8. Aims andimplications of EQF

  • For Training Providers:

    • Ability to demonstrate value

    • Ability to demonstrate 3rd party compliance

    • Ability to demonstrate EQF level against a common Euro-Sector framework

    • Competence neutral of academic qualification


Recognition of knowledge and skils and labour market

8. Aims andimplications of EQF

  • For Sub Sectors:

    • Technical compatibility across Europe

    • Recognition of skills common to other sub sectors

    • More flexible workforces

    • Better skilled workforces


8 a ims and implications of eqf1

8. Aims andimplications of EQF

1. Work in pairs – 5. minutes

- Discuss about use of EQF in practice (on examples)


10 the eqf and ehea case study

10. The EQF and EHEA- case study -


The eqf and dublin descriptors

The EQF and Dublin Descriptors

1. Individual work – 10. minutes

  • - Compare EQF with Dublin Descriptors

2. Work in pairs – 5. minutes

- Discuss about the similarities and differences of “qualifications” frameworks


The eqf and dublin descriptors first cycle

The EQF and Dublin Descriptors- first cycle -

  • Demonstrating knowledge and understanding in a field of study that builds upon students` general education, and is typically at a level that, whilst supported by advanced textbooks, includes some aspects that will be informed by knowledge of the foerefront of their field of study;

  • Applying knowledge and understanding in a manner that indicates a professional approach to their work or vocation, and having competences typically demonstrated through devising and sustaining arguments and solving problems within their field of study;

  • Having the ability to gather and interpret relevant data (usually within the related field of study) to inform judgments that include reflection on relevant social, scientific or ethical issues;

  • Being able to communicate information, ideas, problems, and solutions to both specialist and non-specialist audiences;

  • Having developed those learning skills that are necessary for them to continue to undertake further study with a high degree of autonomy.


The eqf and dublin descriptors second cycle

The EQF and Dublin Descriptors- second cycle -

  • Demonstrating knowledge and understanding that is founded upon and extends and/or enhances that typically associated with the first cycle, and that provides a basis or opportunity for originality in developing and/or applying ideas, often within a research context;

  • Applying knowledge and understanding and problem solving abilities in new or unfamiliar environments within broader (or multidisciplinary) contexts related to their field of study;

  • Having the ability to integrate knowledge and to handle complexity, and formulate judgments with incomplete ore limited information, but that include reflecting on social and ethical responsibilities linked to the application of their knowledge and judgments;

  • Being able to communicate conclusions, and the knowledge and rationale underpinning these, to specialist and non-specialist audiences clearly and unambiguously;

  • Having the learning skills to allow them to continue to study in a manner that may be largely self-directed or autonomous.


11 eqf and nqfs

11. EQF and NQFs

  • The European Comissions recommends that all member countries develop NQFs. Most EU-Member States who have not yet done so are now developing their own NQFs to link to the EQF.

  • A transparent methodology shall be used for the referencing of qualifications into the NQFs.

  • National qualifications shall be referenced into national qualifications frameworks, not directly into the EQF.


11 eqf and nqfs1

11. EQF and NQFs


Recognition of knowledge and skils and labour market

12. Definition of the NQF

National qualification framework is:

a single description, at national level or level of an education system, which is internationally understood and through which all qualifications and other learning achievements in higher education may be described and related to each other in a coherent way and which defines the relationship between higher education qualifications.


Recognition of knowledge and skils and labour market

13. Chacteristics of the NQF

National qualification framework is:

  • closest to the operational reality

  • owned by national system

  • in most cases based on national legislation

  • determines what qualifications learners will earn

  • make explicit the purpose and aim of qualifications


Recognition of knowledge and skils and labour market

13. Chacteristics of the NQF

National qualification framework is:

6. national and international transparency: describes in a systematic and coherent way all qualifications, the interaction and articulation between qualifications and the possibilities for movement among qualifications in all directions

7. makes it easier to earn qualifications in a variety of ways

8. focus on outcomes, from procedure to content


Recognition of knowledge and skils and labour market

13. Chacteristics of the NQF

National qualification framework is:

6. the link between the world of formal and non-foral education and the world of labour on national level

  • An integrated national sistem that enables measurablement and development of all competences acquired by learning, as well as their coherent comparation

  • Encompasses a wide combination of all qualifications which can be acuired in a country, as well as institutions, processes and mechanisms which provide these qualifications and competences


Recognition of knowledge and skils and labour market

14. Need for NQF

  • New labour market demands

  • Quality of competences of VET graduates

  • Unresolved status of the competences acqired non-formal learning

  • Mobility within the education system

  • Relationship between formal, non-formal and adult education


Recognition of knowledge and skils and labour market

15. Precondition for the development of NQF

  • Reform of education system

  • Reform orientation on learning outcomes

  • Developing of a qualification system

  • Standardization, validation and acreditation


Recognition of knowledge and skils and labour market

15. Precondition for the development of NQF

5. Political will

6. Existence of adequate institutions and experts

7. Participation of social partners

8. Sustainable financing


Recognition of knowledge and skils and labour market

16. Main elements of the NQF

  • Cycles/Levels

  • Workload and credits

  • Profile: academic/professional

  • Learning outcomes

  • Competences


Recognition of knowledge and skils and labour market

17. The NQF enables

  • Comparability

  • Convergence

  • Harmonisation


Recognition of knowledge and skils and labour market

18. The NQF provides

  • General criteria and principles for establishing, monitoring and sustaining the quality of education

  • Overall principles for validatioon of non-formal and informal learning

  • Stable framework for career development


19 direct benefits of the nqf

19. Direct benefits of the NQF

  • Better identification and classification of cometences by the employers

  • Solid foundation for planing and implementation of the human resources policy

  • Increased mobility within the education system

  • Increase of quality of human resources on the labour market – more competitive and more qualified offer

  • Inceased mobility of resources on the labour market

  • Improved credibilty of acquired qualifications and training


20 problems of nqf

20. Problems of NQF

  • (Horizontal and vertical) complexity

  • Slow pace

  • The ‘Trojan horse’ phenomenon

  • The ‘emperor’s new clothes’ phenomenon


20 problems of nqf1

20. Problems of NQF

1. (Horizontal and vertical) complexity

This is a question of partnership which emerges when many actors enter the process at different levels.


20 problems of nqf2

20. Problems of NQF

2. Slow pace

Using an “open method of coordination” at international level has shown that it takes a longtime, although results are suitable, since they are effective and are valid for a long time


20 problems of nqf3

20. Problems of NQF

3. The ‘Trojan horse’ phenomenon

Although the European qualifications framework is defined as a “voluntary” meta-frameworkfor developing confidence between different actors, there remains a danger that it encroaches,despite the subsidiary principle, on policy areas which are primarily the domain of Member States.


20 problems of nqf4

20. Problems of NQF

4. The ‘emperor’s new clothes’ phenomenon

Using the open method of coordination means there is a serious risk that States will adoptthe European qualifications framework only formally, while, in practical terms (in the frameworkof national systems) they will not introduce substantive changes to enable mobility, recognitionof non-formal and informal learning, etc.


21 the nqf in eu countries

21. The NQF in EU countries

1. coherent, advanced system of qualifications is available

- Finland, Norway - their education systems fully cover qualifications and extend to life long learning, therefore these countries do not really need a NQF; they consider it carefully, in a detached manner. They would work on relating their qualification levels to EQF.

2. NQF has been established covering more subsectors of education

- France, Ireland, Spain, Malta, United Kingdom - with separate frameworks in England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales). Their intention could be to make their system more open and effective. They are also working on relating their NQF to EQF


21 the nqf in eu countries1

21. The NQF in EU countries

3. NQF is not available, subsectors are not coherent

- Flemish Belgium, Czech Republic - Development of a NQF has already been accepted widely. Newcomers (Central and East European countries) are all planning to develop a NQF. Work in some countries is already in progress.


Conclusion1

Conclusion

EQF and NQF

1. Recognizes that qualifications are complex: give generic or subject-specific knowledge, skills and competences

2. Have implications for the relationship between education institutions and public authorities

3. Provide a context for review and development of existing qualifications

4. Provide a context for the design of new qualifications

5. Link to quality assurance


Thank you for your attention

THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION

Contact: [email protected]


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