motivation an overview of theories examined in the context of music education
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Motivation: An overview of theories examined in the context of music education…. Psychology of Music Learning Dr. Miksza. VERY brief background…. Hull Organismic/intervening variables Drive theory Internal state of need - trying to reach homeostastis Heron Arousal theory

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motivation an overview of theories examined in the context of music education

Motivation: An overview of theories examined in the context of music education…

Psychology of Music Learning

Dr. Miksza

very brief background
VERY brief background…
  • Hull
    • Organismic/intervening variables
    • Drive theory
      • Internal state of need - trying to reach homeostastis
  • Heron
    • Arousal theory
    • Individual’s need for stimulation, risks, and sensations
    • Arousal can be defined as “the level of internal energy an organism is currently experiencing (Ormrod)”
    • Deterioration of cognitive ability and a general inability to function as deprivation grew
    • Concluded that people have a basic need for sensation
  • Lewin
    • Field theory
    • Lifespace, needs, social influences
definitions and relevance
Definitions and relevance…
  • Motivation provides energy for seeking out and being involved in tasks
    • Arouse interest
    • Influence choice, direction, goals
    • Starting, sustaining, and/or stopping behavior
  • 11% to 17% of variance in achievement explained by motivation
    • Important because it can be manipulated by the teacher
extrinsic sources tends to be behavioral
Extrinsic sources (tends to be behavioral)
  • Reinforcement
  • Environment
  • Social sources
    • Approval, disapproval, tokens, rewards, etc.
  • Disadvantages
    • Unlikely to choose similar activities without extrinsic rewards
    • Don’t pursue activities outside of class
    • Inhibit the development of intrinsic orientation
    • May lead to negative performance outcomes in the long-term
intrinsic sources tends to be cognitive
Intrinsic Sources (tends to be cognitive)
  • Internal decisions and energy
  • Engaged in ‘for their own sake’
  • Advantageous
    • Persist even when external sources aren’t available
    • Higher self-concept
    • See Weiner (1986) quote - anti-behaviorist approach
    • Contrast Weiner with Deci & Ryan (1985) - using extrinsic to ‘stoke’ intrinsic
maximizing extrinsic motivation
Maximizing extrinsic motivation…
  • Only use rewards when necessary
  • Don’t reward a learner for an inherently interesting task
  • Limit use of rewards for behavioral control and participation
  • Avoid rewards with divergent tasks
  • Use rewards for acknowledging competence
  • Use rewards for memorization and convergent tasks
contemporary intrinsic extrinsic approaches goal orientations
Contemporary intrinsic/extrinsic approaches…Goal orientations…
  • Elliot - Achievement goal orientations
    • Performance goals (aka - ego)
      • Norm-referenced achievement orientations
      • E.g., doing well in comparison to others, trying not to look bad, competing
    • Mastery goals (aka - task)
      • Self-referential achievement orientations
      • E.g., to satisfy interest, to make personal improvement
contemporary intrinsic extrinsic approaches goal orientations1
Contemporary intrinsic/extrinsic approaches…Goal orientations…
  • Approach and Avoid ‘valence’
  • Highest achievers tend to have strong mastery- AND performance-approach orientations
  • Learner traits…
    • Approach - help-seeking, organized
    • Avoid - disorganized, anxiety, avoidance, avoid help-seeking
goal orientations in music
Goal orientations in music…
  • Given findings in general ed - seems to be an important avenue to go down…
  • Just beginning… …both mastery/approach and task/ego terminology used…
  • Given findings in general ed.
  • Miksza (2008) - some evidence for the 2 X 2 model…
  • Smith (2002) and Schmidt (2005) - high correlations among sub-scales
self concept self esteem
  • Achievement and success enhance self-concept
  • Failure may also have constructive effects on self-concept if:
    • The goals, conditions, assessment, and attributions are appropriate
    • Especially if the learner is intrinsically motivated to pursue the task in the first place
  • More control over the task the learner has the stronger effect on self-concept
vispoel 1994
Vispoel (1994)
  • Self-concept has been poorly defined over time - especially in music
  • Self-concept is:
    • Organized, multi-faceted, hierarchical, stable, complexity changes with age, descriptive and evaluative, distinct from other constructs like achievement and intelligence
  • Music self-concept correlated with general artistic self-concept and verbal-academic self-concept
  • Music self-concept is also hierarchically structured
  • Music self-concept may differentiate by instrumental vs. non-instrumental
self concept in music
Self-concept in music…
  • Positive self-concept related to achievement in music
  • Music participation related to positive general self-concept
    • Results mixed for minority and disadvantaged students
  • Pre-service practice teaching experiences lead to enhanced teacher self-concept
  • Self-concept increased as result of participation in contest
  • Consistent correlation between music self-concept and magnitude of motivation
self concept in music1
Self-concept in music…
  • Austin and Vispoel (1991)
    • Self-concept related to music achievement as measured by Colwell’s MAT
  • Klinedinst (1991)
    • No relation between self-concept, using the Svengalis self-concept measure, and teacher ratings of music students
  • Sandene’s (1997)
    • Study also included self-concept using an adaptation of Schmitt’s Self-Esteem in Instrumental Music Scale (1979)
    • Significant decrease in self-esteem means from 5th to 8th grade
    • Drop outs were found to be lower on self-esteem than students who continued in band
  • Schmidt (2005)
    • No significant differences by grade level or gender on music self-concept when surveying high school band students
more foundational theories
More foundational theories…
  • Maslow - Drive Theory
    • Meet needs… see hierarchy from last week…
  • Atkinson and McClelland - Achievement Theory
    • Approach success
      • Interaction of previous successes, motive to achieve, expectancy of success, and perceived value of success
      • Optimal level: perceived difficulty and expectancy of success is intermediate
    • Avoid failure
      • Ring toss experiment… (Atkinson & Litwin)
      • Protect self-perception - choose task that’s too easy or too difficult to explain away failures…
perceptions of success and failure
Perceptions of success and failure…
  • Rotter - Locus of Control
    • Internal and external reasons for future successes and failures
      • Internal: ability, effort
      • External: luck, powerful others
  • Weiner - Attribution Theory
    • Perceived causes of past successes and failures
      • Internal/External, Stable/Unstable, Controllable/Uncontrollable
locus of control in music
Locus of Control in music…
  • Sandene (1987)
    • Middle school band drop outs are likely to be more external than those who continue
  • Madsen and Goins (2002)
    • Music majors more internal than the general population
    • Music ed majors more internal than music therapy and performance
  • Kornicke (1992)
    • Piano performance majors achievement related to external locus of control
    • ‘Defensive externals’ - optimal level of anxiety
  • Miksza (2005)
    • Trend of correlations between performance achievement and internal LOC
attribution theory in music
Attribution theory in music…
  • Effort and ability most commonly cited by younger students
  • Attributions tend to become more stable with age
  • Task difficulty more commonly cited by older students
  • Attributions somewhat distinct from magnitude of motivation
  • Those with high magnitude tend to cite effort more often
  • Ability attributions positively related to successes but negatively related to failure
  • Asmus motivational factors
    • Effort
    • Background
    • Classroom environment
    • Musical ability
    • Affect for music
attribution theory in music1
Attribution theory in music…
  • Asmus (1986)
    • 6th graders attributions of success and failure in music were mostly internal
    • Stability of these attributions fluctuated greatly between effort and ability
  • Austin (1988)
    • Predominance of internal attributions in public school students
    • Effort attributions in particular
  • Schmidt (1995)
    • Public school choral students mostly internal, unstable attributions of effort
  • Austin and Vispoel (1991)
    • Attributions of success and failure regarding related to cognitive music achievement scores
    • Ability attributions for success were positively related to achievement scores
    • Ability attributions for failure were negatively related to achievement scores
    • Students believed that ability was related to success regarding achievement but not failure
attribution theory in music2
Attribution theory in music…
  • Vispoel and Austin (1995)
    • Differences between attributions for success and attributions for failure
    • Effort in particular in general music
    • Ability attributions for success and failure were significantly related to achievement in all areas
  • Asmus and Harrison (1990)
    • AMF with college non-music majors showed two factors rather than five
    • (Internal) - Ability, effort, background and affect attributions made up one factor while (external) - environment stood alone on the other
  • Legette (1998)
    • Public school students AMF
    • Internal attributions were found to be more prominent
    • Females scored higher on all five sub-scales than males
    • Urban students reported more effort and ability attribution
    • Rural students reported higher environment attributions
  • Sandene (1997)
    • AMF and Asmus’ Magnitude of Motivation Scale (MMS)
    • This study showed a still different underlying structure of the AMF
    • A comparison across grade levels showed significant decreases in all AMF sub-scales as grade level increased All AMF sub-scales highly related suggesting one global factor with this population rather than 2 or 5 as in earlier studies
    • AMF and MMS related
    • AMF related to task goals but not ego goals
more theories
More theories…
  • Bandura - Self-efficacy
    • ‘a person’s beliefs in ability to produce intended outcomes on a specific task’
      • Effect: choice of activity, effort, persistence
  • Deci & Ryan - Self-determination
    • Sense of control enhances intrinsic motivation
    • Satisfying an inherent need to be competent and self-determining
self efficacy in music
Self-efficacy in music…
  • McPherson & McCormick (2002)
    • Model of self-efficacy and other related variables showed that self-efficacy was best predictor of performance achievement
  • Madura (1996)
    • Self-efficacy best predictor of improvisation skill
  • Bergee (2006)
    • Music teacher classroom management efficacy…
common motivational topics in practical music education literature
Common motivational topics in practical music education literature
  • Nature of musical materials
  • Music as a reinforcer
  • Classroom environment
  • Competition
  • Teaching strategies
  • Teacher characteristics
mcpherson zimmerman 2002
McPherson & Zimmerman (2002)
  • Self-regulation
    • From a social-cognitive perspective…
      • Interaction of individual, environment, and behavior (reciprocal causation/determinism)
    • Dimensions
      • Motive - why
      • Strategies - how
      • Time management - when
      • Performance behavior - what
      • Social elements, help - with whom
mcpherson zimmerman 20021
McPherson & Zimmerman (2002)
  • Motivation
    • Parental support, self-motivation
  • Strategies
    • Task-oriented, alone vs. with help of a teacher, mental strategies
  • Time management
    • Efficiency, avoidance, use of time
  • Behavior
    • Metacognition, problem solving, self-evaluation, adaptive mastery-oriented or maladaptive performance-oriented, physical environment
  • Social elements
    • Parents, teachers, siblings and peers
mcpherson zimmerman 20022
McPherson & Zimmerman (2002)
  • Stages of self-regulation
    • Observation
      • Learning from a model
    • Emulation
      • Imitation of a model, imitation with social assistance
    • Self-control
      • Independent display of model’s skills under structured conditions
    • Self-regulation
      • Adaptive use of skill across changing personal and environmental conditions
schmidt 2005
Schmidt (2005)
  • A parsimonious model…
  • Two-factor solution of many, many motivation constructs… …task/learning (intrinsic) and ego/performance (extrinsic)
    • Marsh et al. nearly replicated
  • Overall - mastery and intrinsic motivation were driving students’ motivation (based on ratings)
  • Subjects who were high in intrinsic motivation also reported more practicing and received higher effort ratings from their instructors
  • Similar findings with a college population…