Introduction to Computers. Prof. Sokol Computer and Information Science Brooklyn College. What is a Computer?. A COMPUTER is an electronic device that can: Receive information Perform processes Produce output Store info for future use. Information Processing Cycle. Input Process
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
Introduction to Computers
Computer and Information Science
A COMPUTER is an electronic device that can:
Hardware vs. Software
(CD-RW, Floppy, Hard disk, zip,…)
Central Processing Unit
The central processing unit (CPU) is the “brain” of the computer. It:
interprets instructions to the computer (control unit),
performs the arithmetic and logical processing (ALU)
Memory, also called Random Access Memory or RAM stores:
instructions waiting to be executed
data needed by those instructions
results of processed data
Any information stored in RAM is lost when the computer is turned off.
Amount Of RAM In Computers
We measure the size of memory by telling how many bytes it can hold.
1 kilobyte = 210 bytes = 1024 bytes
1 megabyte = 220 bytes = ~1 million bytes
1 gigabyte = 230 bytes = ~1 billion bytes
1 terabyte = 240 bytes = ~1 trillion bytes
Typical RAM size: 2 to 4 GB.
Note: a 32 bit OS can only handle up to 4GB of RAM since 232=4GB.
Output devices make the information resulting from the processing available for use.
printer - produces a hard copy of your output
screen - produces a soft copy of your output
Auxiliary storage devices are used for permanent storage of data.
magnetic disks (hard disks, floppy disks)
optical disks (CD and DVD drives)
USB drives and flash memory cards
Use laser to read and write:
Typical CD’s can store about 700 MB
Typical DVD’s can store up to 17 GB
There are several different forms of flash memory, for e.g. USB drives, CompactFlash, Secure Digital, xD Picture Card.
Computer software is the key to productive use of computers. Software can be categorized into two types:
The most important system software is the operating system.
Examples of operating systems:
Windows, DOS, Apple, UNIX, Linux
An OS is a computer program that:
Application Software consists of programs that tell a computer how to produce information. Some of the more commonly used packages are:
Allows the user to enter, retrieve, and update data in an organized and efficient manner, with flexible inquiry and reporting capabilities.