Unit 11 the marine environment
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Unit 11 The Marine Environment. The diversity of marine life. The ocean is home to a wide variety of organisms Marine organisms range from microscopic bacteria and algae to the largest animal in the world (blue whale) Number of known marine species: 250,000 Video on Bioluminescence.

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Unit 11 The Marine Environment

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Unit 11 the marine environment

Unit 11The Marine Environment


The diversity of marine life

The diversity of marine life

  • The ocean is home to a wide variety of organisms

  • Marine organisms range from microscopic bacteria and algae to the largest animal in the world (blue whale)

  • Number of known marine species: 250,000

  • Video on Bioluminescence


Classification of living things

Classification of living things

  • Organisms can be classified into one of three domains of life:

    • Archaea

    • Bacteria

    • Eukarya


Classification of living things1

Classification of living things

  • Organisms can also be classified into one of five kingdoms:

    • Monera

    • Protoctista

    • Fungi

    • Plantae

    • Animalia


Classification of living things2

Classification of living things

  • Taxonomic classification includes the following increasingly specific groupings:

    • Kingdom

    • Phylum (Division for plants)

    • Class

    • Order

    • Family

    • Genus

    • Species


Taxonomic classification of selected organisms

Taxonomic classification of selected organisms


Classification of marine organisms

Classification of marine organisms

  • Marine organisms can be classified into one of three groups based on habitatand mobility:

    • Plankton(floaters)

      • Phytoplankton (drifting plants and algae)

      • Zooplankton (drifting animals)

    • Nekton (swimmers)

    • Benthos(bottom dwellers)


Plankton examples

Plankton: Examples

Phytoplankton

Zooplankton


Nekton examples

Nekton: Examples


Benthos examples

Benthos: Examples


Life cycle of a squid

Life cycle of a squid

  • Squid experience benthic, planktonic, and nektonic stages

  • Squid are considered meroplankton (partially planktonic)

  • Organisms that spend their entire lives as plankton are holoplankton)


Distribution of species on earth

Distribution of species on Earth

  • The land has more species because it has greater environmental variability than the ocean

  • Most ocean species are benthic because of greater environmental variability compared to pelagic environments


Adaptations of organisms to the marine environment

Adaptations of organisms to the marine environment

  • The marine environment presents many challenges to organisms because seawater:

    • Is dense enough to support organisms

    • Has high viscosity

    • Experiences variations in temperature and salinity

    • Contains variable amounts of dissolved gases

    • Has high transparency

    • Has a dramatic change of pressure with depth

  • Marine organisms have various adaptations for the conditions of the marine environment


Need for physical support

Need for physical support

  • Condition:

    • Seawater is denseenough to support marine organisms

  • Adaptations:

    • Many marine organisms lack rigid skeletons, appendages, or vast root systems

    • Instead, they rely on buoyancy and friction to maintain their position within the water column


Seawater s viscosity controlled by temperature

Seawater’s viscosity controlled by temperature

  • Condition:

    • Seawater’s viscosity (resistance to flow) is strongly affected by temperature

    • Cold water has higher viscosity than warm water, so is more difficult to swim through

    • Warm water has lower viscosity, so organisms tend to sink within the water column


Seawater s viscosity controlled by temperature1

Seawater’s viscosity controlled by temperature

  • Adaptations:

    • Many warm-water organisms have ornate appendages to stay afloat

    • Many cold-water organisms are streamlined to swim more easily

Warm-water copepod

Cold-water copepod


Seawater s viscosity and adaptations of phytoplankton

Seawater’s viscosity and adaptations of phytoplankton

  • Condition:

    • Phytoplankton must remain in sunlit surface waters

  • Adaptations:

    • Small size increases surface area to volume ratio

    • Appendages increase frictional resistance

    • Tiny droplet of low density oil increases buoyancy


Variations in temperature

Variations in temperature

  • Condition:

    • Coastal water temperatures vary more than the open ocean or at depth

  • Adaptations:

    • Many coastal organisms can withstand a wide temperature range (are eurythermal)

    • Most open ocean and deep-water organisms can withstand only a small temperature range (are stenothermal)


Variations in salinity

Variations in salinity

  • Condition:

    • Coastal environments experience greater salinity variation than the open ocean or at depth

  • Adaptations:

    • Many shallow-water coastal organisms can withstand a wide salinity range (are euryhaline)

    • Most open ocean and deep-water organisms can withstand only a small change in salinity (are stenohaline)


Osmosis

Osmosis

  • Condition:

    • Osmosis is the movement of water molecules through a semipermeable membrane from lowerto higherconcentrations

    • Osmosis removes water from hypotonic organisms

    • Osmosis adds water to hypertonic organisms


Osmosis1

Osmosis

  • Adaptations:


Dissolved gases oxygen

Dissolved gases: Oxygen

  • Condition:

    • Marine animals need oxygen to survive

  • Adaptations:

    • Many marine animals use gills to extract dissolved oxygen from seawater

    • Marine mammals must breathe air


Abundance of dissolved oxygen and nutrients with depth

Abundance of dissolved oxygen and nutrients with depth


Seawater s high transparency

Seawater’s high transparency

  • Condition:

    • Seawater has high transparency

  • Adaptations:

    • Transparency

    • Camouflage

    • Countershading

    • Migration (DSL)

Camouflage

Countershading


The deep scattering layer dsl

The deep scattering layer (DSL)

  • Organisms within the deep scattering layer undertake a daily migration to hide in deep, darker waters during daytime


Increase of pressure with depth

Increase of pressure with depth

  • Condition:

    • Pressure increases rapidly with depth

  • Adaptations:

    • Most marine organisms lack large compressible air pockets inside their bodies

    • Water-filled bodies exert the same amount of pressure as is pushing inward, so marine organisms do not feel the high pressure at depth


Divisions of the marine environment

Divisions of the marine environment

  • Main divisions:

    • Pelagic (open sea)

    • Benthic (sea bottom)


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