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Rabies in Wildlife in Israel 1948 -2007

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Assessment of the efficacy of oral vaccination of livestock guardian dogs in the framework of oral rabies vaccination of wild canids in Israel.

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Assessment of the efficacy of oral vaccination of livestock guardian dogs in the framework of oral rabies vaccination of wild canids in Israel

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B.A. Yakobson 1, R. King 2, N. Sheichat 1, B. Eventov 3 and D. David 11Kimron Veterinary Institute, Bet Dagan, 2 Nature & Parks Authority, 3 Golan District,VSAHIsrael

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ORV

1998-2006

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Distribution

plots

for

ORV

tetracycline and antibody detection in sampled animals

Year

Tetracycline

Seroconversion

Positive

% positive

Positive

% positive

2000

35 / 77

45.0

13 / 51

25.5

2001

56 / 74

75.7

10 / 37

27.0

2002

57 / 90

63.3

4 / 28

14.0

2003

116/269

43.1

11/63

17.5

Tetracycline and antibody detection in sampled animals
rabies israel 1985 2007
Rabies, Israel 1985-2007

Outbreak

in central

Israel

ORV North

ORV all country

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Annual Budget

2003-2005, in US$

  • Vaccination 1,200,000
  • Monitoring 200,000
  • Total1,400,000

2006 1,000,000

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Rabies incidence in Israel, 2005

Dogs 20

Cattle 9

Wolf 2

Cat 1

Badger 1

Fox 1

TOTAL 34

golan heights upper galilee1
Golan Heights & Upper Galilee
  • The human population on the Golan is sparse, the region has relatively large open areas, and significant segments of it have been declared nature reserves.
  • The Golan is home to thousands of gazelles, rock rabbits, hyenas, wild boars, foxes, and even a rare subspecies of wolf unique to the Golan. They cohabit with badgers, jackals, wildcats, and the rare leopard or two
golan heights
Golan Heights
  • Area.................................1,158 sq kmBorder length with Syria..............80 kmHighest peak.......................2,224 m above sea levelVillages.................................36Jewish..................................32Druze villages............................4Main town.............................Katzrin. (the only town)Jewish population .................16,500Druze population...................17,000Nature reserve.......................246 sq kmCultivated area.........................80 sq kmGrazing lands..........................460 sq kmCattle...............................19,950 headSheep................................5,000
  • Household dogs........... ...........1,334
  • Livestock guarding dogs...............358
objective of the study
Objective of the Study

To determine the feasibility of oral rabies vaccination of packs of livestock guarding dogs (LGD)

material and methods
Material and Methods
  • Two different bait formats (fishmeal polymer and coated sachets) of the US product Raboral V-RG, Merial were used
  • Both formats were presented to packs of 5 -12 dogs in 5 different test zones
  • Total number of 42 (5 packs of 5, 6, 8, 11, 12 in each) dogs were observed
  • The behaviour of bait ingestion was recorded
  • No analysis for serology or biomarkers was done
livestock guarding dogs lgd
Livestock guarding dogs (LGD)
  • Livestock guarding dogs (LGD) are generally large and protective.
  • Two to five dogs may be placed with a flock or herd depending on its size.
  • LGD have been known to fight to the death with predators, but in most cases, predator attacks are prevented by a display of aggressiveness.
  • Minimized human contact (probably the most critical ingredient for success)
summary of results
Summary of results
  • The fishmeal bait was more attractive to the LGD than the coated one - 88% vs 73%
  • Only 28% of vaccines reached the oral cavity with fishmeal bait in comparison to 12% with coated baits
conclusions
Conclusions
  • The estimated efficacy of rabies oral vaccination, using 2 commercial vaccine baits designed for wild canids, in packs of LGD is very low (a maximum of 28%)
  • Stray dog removal is an essential part of rabies control in LGD
  • At least 2 parental vaccinations of LGD is needed before their release
  • Identification (microchip) of LGD is necessary to monitor that this concept is working
  • Continuation of ORV in wildlife must also be ensured
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