Measuring Intelligence. (Spiral) Introduction to Intelligence KWL: . K : List 20 words that relate to intelligence. W: Read the “Review” on Myers pg. 415. For each of the five sections, come up with 2 intelligent questions about the terms, ideas, or theories presented in that section.
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J.P. Guilford (1950’s) created his three-factor structure of the intellect, commonly known as SOI. In his cubic model there are three separate factors that make up any intellectual activity (see left).
Louis Leon Thurstoneis known for the development of the Thurstone scale, which replaced Binet’s original scale. Came up with theory of Primary Mental Abilities" (PMAs), which were independent group factors of intelligence that different individuals possessed in varying degrees. He opposed the notion of a singular general intelligence that factored into the scores of all psychometric tests and was expressed as a mental age (see right)
Successful Intelligence (1999, 2000):(part of the Triarchic Theory; detailed offshoot of the Componential Subtheory and Performance Components)analytical intelligence:academic problem-solving assessed by intelligence tests, which present well-defined problems having a single right outcomes. Linked to grades and vocational success.creative intelligence: is demonstrated in reacting adaptively to novel situations and generating novel ideas.practical intelligence: required for everyday tasks, which may be ill-defined. Multiple solutions. EX. Managerial success (can you manage yourself, tasks, and other people?)
Figure9.20 Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence
Experiences and learning
THE ONE TO MEMORIZE
Table 9-3, p. 364
Focuses for this subunit:
heritability (especially Scarr’s theory),
Define OR describe each:
= shows up on at least one released exam
The Evolution of Intelligence Testing
1. Rearrange the following letters to make a word and choose the category in which it fits.
A. cityB. fruitC. birdD. vegetable
2. Find the answer that best completes the analogy
people : democracy :: wealthy :
A. oligarchyB. oligopolyC. plutocracyD. timocracyE. autocracy
3. Which number should come next in this series?
A. 4B. 5C. 10D. 14
4. Which diagram results from folding the diagram on the left?
Ex. SAT is a “thinly disguised intelligence test (Garner, 1999). Aptitude intended to predict how well you’ll do in college.
1. Standardization: the uniform procedures used in the administration and scoring of a test.
EX: PSAT results. What did they show you?
EX: What about DBA? Is it standardized? Lets look at your class on Data Director!
2. Validity: the test measures what it is supposed to measure.
**Are what you want to measure and the questions/tasks you put on the test correlated? EX: Would you use handwriting analysis to gauge a persons intelligence?
**Can the test results be reproduced? EX: You scored a 26 on the ACT. You take it again and score a 27. Were the results about the same?
Reliability and Validity of IQ tests
Figure 9.2 Test-retest reliability
Figure 9.3 Correlation and reliability
Figure 9.4 Criterion-related validity
**68% of people score within 15 points above or below 100.
**95% of all people fall within 20 points of 100
**Top and bottom 2% are “gifted” or “intellectually disabled” (mentally retarded)
On the other hand:
**Brain areas responsible for higher cognitive reasoning develop differently in highly intelligent children. (Shaw, 2006)
**The moral of the story: While gifted kids’ minds work differently, they are not necessarily socially maladjusted and their outcomes are not necessarily different from those of non-gifted children. That depends on a lot of factors.
**Other factors of success include personal characteristics, interest in school & willingness to study
Nature vs Nurture: Do We Inherit Intelligence?Read the following results from multiple studies over the years. Does nature or nurture tend to win out? In Myers pgs.428-9.
EX. John was born and raised in a deprived environment. His genetically-predisposed IQ range is 110-125. Where will he likely score on an IQ test?
EX. Susan was born and raised in an enriching environment. She attends school, works hard, and sets high goals for herself. Her genetically-predisposed IQ range is 90-105. Where will she likely score on an IQ test?
EX. Susan’s identical twin, Pam, was born and raised in the same environment as Susan. Pam misses school frequently, does as little as possible, and is indifferent about her future. Where will she likely score on an IQ test?
Group Differences in IQ Scores
A Socially-Charged Dimension of the Nature vs Nurture Debate