Gerunds and infinitives
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Gerunds and Infinitives

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Gerunds and infinitives

GerundsandInfinitives


Gerunds and infinitives

Gerunds, alsocalled ‘-ingforms’ ,can be used not only as verbs but also as adjectivesandnouns.When ‘-ingforms’ used as a verbor an adjective,theyarecalled as ‘presentparticiples’ andwhenused as a noun,wegenerallycalledthem as ‘gerunds’.

  • Thegerund can be used:

  • 1-As thesubject of a verb

  • 2-As theobject of a verb

  • 3-As theobject of a preposition

  • 4-After a possessiveorthepossessive form of nouns

  • 5-Aftercertainverbs


Gerunds and infinitives

  • 1-When a gerund is used as thesubject of verb,it is placed at thebeginnig of a sentence.

  • Ex: Readingromanticnovels is myfavouritepasstime.

  • Smokingis hazardoustohealth.

  • Walkingfromheretothesupermarkettakesonlyfiveminutes.

  • 2-When a gerund is used as theobject of a verb,in a sentence it is placedaftertheverb.

    Ex:Shetriedtoavoidgettinginvolved in theirquarrels.

  • Marrydislikedlisteningto pop music.

  • Theyhateeatingjunkfoods.

  • Andothers:

  • Admit-carry on-consider-delay-deny-can’thelp-enjoy-finish

  • Giveup-imagine-involve-mention-mind-practise-suggest-miss.


Gerunds and infinitives

  • 3-As a object of a preposition:

  • A gerund can also be used as a object of thepreposition.Inthiscasegerundfollowsthepreposition.

  • A-Verb+prep.+gerund:

  • Accuse of:He wasaccused of breakinginto a shop.

  • Apologizefor:Weapologizedforbeinglate.

  • Theydecidedagainststealingthe car.

  • I feellikegoingtobedearlytonight.

  • Andothers:

    • Believe in-blamefor-complainabout-concentre on-congratulate on Copewith-decideagainst-depend on-dreamabout\of-feellikeGetusedto-insist on-lookforwardto-prevent\stop from-rely on

    • Succeed in-specialize in-talk about\of-think of-warnsbagainst

    • Worryabout.


Gerunds and infinitives

B-Adjective+prep.+gerund:

  • Afraid of:Theyareafraid of losingtheirproperties.

  • Bad\good at: He wasbad\good at solvingtheproblems.

  • Fed upwith: She is fed upwithbeingtreatedlike a child.

  • Joe is keen on paintingportraits.

  • I amtired of watchingthesamestupidprograms on TV.

  • Andothers:

    • Angryabout\at-clever at-crazyabout-disappointedabout\at

    • Excitedabout-famousfor-fond of-gladabout-happyabout\at

    • Interested in-proud of-sick of-sorryabout\for-tired of

    • Be usedto-worriedabout.


Gerunds and infinitives

  • C-Noun+prep.+gerund:

  • Advantage of:What is theadvantage of investingmoneynow?

  • Chance of:There’ a chance of catchinga coldthesedays.

  • Danger of:Pam is in danger of losingher job.

  • Difficulty(in):He has difficulty in sending e-mailsto his friends.

  • Doubtabout:He is in doubtaboutdoingtherightthing.

  • Andothers:

    • Hope of-idea of-interest in-method of-opportunity of-risk of

    • Way of-reasonfor-problem of-possibility of.


Gerunds and infinitives

  • 4-After a possessiveadjectiveorthepossessive form of nouns.

  • Ex:Wouldyoumindmyusingyourcomputer(a possessiveadj.)

  • WouldyoumindJohn’stakingyournotes.(possessive form of noun)

  • Thesmoking of cigarettes is bannedalloverthecountry.

  • Note:Byadding not beforegerund form,we can make it negative,

  • Ex:Not havinganyjobexperience is usually a disadvantagewhenyouarelookingfor a job.

  • Her husband’snot beingpatientwith her learningtodrivemadeRoserathernervous.


Gerunds and infinitives

  • 5-Aftercertainverbs :

  • Ex: Admit: Sheatmitteddrivingtoofast.

  • Avoid:He avoidsgoingoutin therushhours.

  • Carry on:Weshouldcarry on workinghard.

  • Delay:I delayedtellingNancythenews.

  • Deny:Shedeniedbuyingthatmoney.

  • Can’thepl:Jasoncouldn’thelpfalling in lovewith her.

  • Enjoy: I enjoyplayingtabletennis.

  • Finish:Wehavefinishedworkingin thegarden.

  • Include:His responsibilityincludestakingreservations.

  • Mention:DidJo ever mentionplayingbaseball?

  • Miss:I missplayingwithmyfriends.

  • Practise:He practisedplayingtheguitar.

  • Suggest:ShesuggestedflyingtoCairo.

  • Risk:Yourisk passingtheexam.


Gerunds and infinitives

  • Specialexpressionsneedgerundafterthemselves:

  • To be busy:Sheis busyreadingthepaper.

  • Couldn’thelp:He couldn’thelpeatinganothersteak.

  • Don’tmind:I don’tmindgivinghimexamnotes.

  • Howabout:Howaboutwalkinghomeinstead of taking a taxi.

  • It’s(no) good:It’s no goodtalkingtoprincipalabout her.

  • It’s no use:It’s no useringingthebellagain;she is not at home.

  • Spendone’s time:I spendmy time watchingTvalldaylong.

  • There’sno:There is no fightinganymore.

  • There’s no point:There’s no point in insisting on thatissue.

  • Whatabout:Whataboutgoingtothebeach?

  • Worth:The film is worthwatching.

  • Waste of time:It’s a waste of time tryingtopersuadehim.


Gerunds and infinitives

*Specialconditions:

Need-Want-Deserve-Require.Gerundcomingafterthesewordsmakesthemeaningpassive, as:

Thesewallsneedpainting(Thesewallsneedto be painted).

His newbookdeservesreading(deservesto be read).

This car wantsservicing(needsto be serviced).

Ournewhouserequireredecorating (needsto be redecorated).

Note:See-Hear-Watch-Notice.Aftertheseverb,ifgerund is used,it

meansthat a part of action is seen,wheninfinitivewithoutto is used

it meansthewholeaction is seen.

I sawtheblue car turnroundthecornerandhitthe car comingfromtheoppositeline. ( I witnessedthewholeaction)

I heardsomebodyopeningthefrontdoor.( Openingstartedbeforehearaction ).


Gerunds and infinitives

  • Note: Find-Smell-Catch .Theseareusedwithgerund.

  • Ex:I couldsmellsomethingburningwhen I openedthedoor.

  • Wefound\caughthimsleeping.

    ***Passiveuse of theseverbs:

    Somebodysawtheburglarsbreakingintomyhouse.(active)

    Theburglarswereseenbreakingintomyhouse.

    Theysawthe car beingtakenbythepolice.

    Theysawthenewfootballerdocooltrickswiththeball.

    Thenewfootballerwasseento do cooltrickswiththeball.


Gerunds and infinitives

  • ****Thepassivegerund: Weuse ‘being done’ form.

  • Ex:Jennyappreciatedbeingcalledlaterby an officertomake sure everythingwasallright.

  • I do not recallbeingtoldthatthehomework is duetoday.

  • He can not standbeingdeceivedby his bestfriend.

  • ****Theperfectgerund:

  • --------x------------------x--------------I--------x—

  • He had murdered He deniedNow

    twopeople

    He deniedmurdering \havingmurderedtwopeople.

    He admittedbribing\havingbribedtheofficials at thecustoms.


Gerunds and infinitives

  • ****Thepassiveperfectgerund: Passive form of Perfectgerund as ‘havingbeen done’:

  • Themandeniedhavingbeenpaidforthework he had done.

  • Theyadmittedhavingbeenhiredbythatrichman.


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