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Genetics ( genética). Look around the room at your classmates Notice how everyone looks different (example: different color eyes, different size noses) Make a list of the different traits you see Could these traits possibly be inherited (passed down from your parents)?. Genetics Vocabulary.

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Genetics ( genética)

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Genetics (genética)

  • Look around the room at your classmates

  • Notice how everyone looks different (example: different color eyes, different size noses)

  • Make a list of the different traits you see

  • Could these traits possibly be inherited (passed down from your parents)?


Genetics Vocabulary

  • Genetics (genética)-The scientific study of genes and the heredity of traits

  • Trait (el rasgo)-specific characteristics such as eye color, that is different from one person to another.


Inheritance (la herencia)

  • Occurs when traits (los rasgos) are passed down from parent to child.

  • Inheritance is why you may look like your parents or your brothers or sisters


Gene (el gene)

  • Bits of information (la información) passed down from parent to child

  • You have two copies of each gene.

  • One copy is from your mom and one copy is from your dad.


Allele

  • The different forms of genes are called alleles

  • For each characteristic, an organism (el organismo) inherits two alleles (one from each parent)

  • These alleles can be the same or different


Dominant (dominante) Alleles

  • A dominant allele is an allele whose trait always is shown

  • A dominant allele is shown by a capital letter (la carta mayúscula) (A)

  • Example: Aa – The capital A is the dominant allele and that trait will be seen.


Recessive (recesivo) Allele

  • A recessive allele is one that is hidden when the other copy of the gene contains the dominant allele.

  • A recessive allele is shown by a lower case letter (la carta minúscula) (a)

  • Example: In the example Aa- The lowercase letter a represents the recessive allele


Homozygous Alleles

  • The 2 inherited alleles can be the same or different

  • Homozygous- If an organism has two of the same alleles for a gene.

    • Example: GG or gg

      • GG or gg


Heterozygous alleles

  • Heterozygous- When an organism has 2 different alleles for a gene.

    • Example: Gg

      • Gg


Genotype (Genotipo)

  • Genotype is the genetic makeup (constitución genética) of an organism.

  • A person’s genotype is a combination of two alleles.

  • Examples: GG, Gg, gg


Phenotype (Fenotipo)

  • Phenotype is the expressed traits of an organism.

  • Examples: Brown hair, Dark skin

  • They are the traits found by reading the genotype.


Example

  • The genotype for the black fur on the dog is FF

  • The black fur that you see on the dog is the phenotype or trait


Punnett Square

  • Uses mom and dad’s genotypes to determine the possibletraits of their offspring.


Activity: Zork Genetics

The planet: Zork

Zorkians


Activity: Zork Genetics

  • Background information: A long time ago, in a galaxy (galaxia) far away, there was a planet (planeta) called Zork. On the planet lived organisms called Zorkians. They are made up of 10 basic genes (el gene) (their genotypes) that code for their appearance (phenotype). Each one of these genes is made up 2 alleles. There are many different ways a Zorkian can look. This is called their phenotype (fenotipo) or their physical appearance. If we look at their genes, there are different combinations of the alleles. This is called the genotype (genotipo) or genetic makeup. Remember that we use letters for the alleles and one letter or allele is inherited from each parent.


Activity: Zork Genetics

  • We will use punnett squares to predict (predecir) what the possible genotypes and phenotypes of the children will be if the Zork parents had a baby.


Allele

Trait

Dominant/

Recessive

Genotype

Phenotype

Heterozygous

Homozygous

T

Tall

Dominant

TT,Tt

Tall

Tt

TT

t

Short

Recessive

tt

Short

tt

G

Green hair

Dominant

GG,Gg

Green

Hair

Gg

GG

g

Yellow hair

Recessive

gg

Yellow

Hair

gg

Activity: Zork Genetics

We will use the chart (el gráfico) on the next page to construct our punnett squares


Activity: Make a Zork Baby

  • You will pick two alleles for each trait (one allele from your mom Zork and one allele from your dad Zork). One partner will represent the dad Zork and use the blue strips and the other partner will represent the mom Zork and use the pink strips.

g

G

Dad allele

Mom allele


Make a Zork Baby

  • Each strip has a letter, – either uppercase (carta mayúscula) or lowercase (carta minúscula). The uppercase letters represent a DOMINANT form of the trait and the lowercase letters represent the RECESSIVE form.

g

G

Recessive allele from dad

Dominant allele

from mom


Make a Zork Baby

  • Each PAIR of letters codes for a TRAIT. A DOMINANT trait will be present if the UPPERCASE letter is present. A RECESSIVE trait occurs only when BOTH lowercase letters are chosen.

  • Dominant Trait:Recessive Trait:

    • GG or Gggg


Make a Zork Baby

  • The traits are matched into same sized pairs and same letters of the alphabet. You should have 10 pairs of same size strips for both the male (blue) and female (pink).

  • Refer back to your Traits of Zorkians chart to match the genotype (example: Gg) to the matching phenotype (green hair).


Make a Zork Baby

  • Take the shortest (brevemente) pair (par) of one color of chromosomes (male) and the shortest pair of the other color of chromosomes (female) and place them FACE DOWN on your desk so that you cannot see the letter.


Make a Zork baby

  • WITHOUT TURNING THE CHROMOSOMES OVER, pick one chromosome from one color (blue), and pick one chromosome of the other color (pink). Put these in the middle as one new pair.


Make a Zork Baby

  • Continue doing this, taking one from each pair from shortest to longest. You and your partner should end up with ten new traits

  • Turn over the chromosomes that remain on your table. These represent a new "baby" zork!


Dad Gene (Blue)

Mom gene (Pink)

G

g

Make a Zork Baby

  • On the DATASHEET, record the letter found on blue chromosomes in the dad column. Record the letter found on the pink chromosomes in the mom column. Be sure you copy the letters exactly, uppercase or lower-case. THIS IS IMPORTANT!

  • DataSheet


Make a Zork Baby

  • Determine the GENOTYPE by combining the 2 letters.

    • Determine if the trait is dominant (AA, Aa) or recessive (aa).

  • Record the PHENOTYPE for each characteristic, using the chart Traits of Zorkians.

  • Example: Genotype (Gg)

    • Phenotype (Green hair)


Make a Zork Baby

  • Now make your Zork baby using the materials at the front of the room.


First Baby Picture

  • I will take a picture of your Zork baby that you can keep!


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