UNIT-3 BEGINNING OF SOCIAL WORK EDUCATION. HISTORY OF SOCIAL WORK -WORLD. The roots of social work education can be traced to their international beginnings in Britain and some countries in Europe towards the end of the 19"'century.
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UNIT-3BEGINNING OF SOCIAL WORK EDUCATION
Work Training is credited to be the first two-year training programme with theory and practice.
in London by women graduates of Oxford and Cambridge. The training pioneered by this group evolved into organized courses, and ultimately, into professional education for social work.
1903 - the Alice Salomon School of Social Work, Germany
1904 - Mary Richmond- the New York School of
1920-Chicago School of Social Service Administration, the First autonomous graduateSchool of social work within a university.
1925-South America-Alejandro del Rio School of Social Work, offered a two-year programme.
1932-The first institution was a three-year diploma at the Cape Town and Transvaal University College. The first degree course was established at the University of Stellenbosch
1922-The first institution to be established In Asia was the Department of Sociology and Social Work, Yenching University
1936 - first school of Social Work in Asia goes to Tata
Institute of Social Sciences, which became a university 1964.
HISTORY OF SOCIAL WORK EDUCATION IN INDIA
The first training course for social work as claimed by University Grants Commission
(Social Work in Education in Indian Universities, 1965) was organized by Social
Science League in Bombay in 1920. This was a short-term course meant for voluntary
workers engaged in welfare work.
The first professional institution that provided training for a career in social work was
established in 1936 in Bombay. The genesis of social work education in India has its roots
in this establishment of Sir Dorabji Tata Graduate School of Social Work (later known as
Tata Institute of Social Sciences).
After Independence, Kashi Vidyapeeth, Varanasi and College of Social Service,
Gujarat Vidyapeeth, Ahmedabad were established in 1947;
In 1948, Delhi School of Social Work, (DSSW) came under auspices of North YWCA of India
with assistance from Foreign Division of American YWCA. It is the pioneer institution offering
two years post graduate course leading to Master's degree.
In 1949, University of Delhi granted affiliation and took up management of School in 1961.
The first school as part of the University was established in Baroda in 1949-50 and
Department of Social Work, Lucknow University was established in 1949.
Madras School of Social Work(l952) arid others were-established across the
length and breadth Of the country
The course of study for Master of Social Work (MSW) extends over two academic years.
Each academic year is divided into two semesters. The first two semesters will have common theory papers and field work. The third and fourth semesters will have, besides the common
theory papers, specialization and elective theory papers, field work in respective areas of specialization and research project.
The nucleus of Social Work Education is the Field Work Programme which is a fundamental component of the curriculum. The fieldwork practicum is the central mechanism for transmitting theoretical knowledge into the practical level of work.
Each student is expected to do a research project during the course of study. The research project work will be started in the third semester and continued till the fourth semester. The final report is submitted at the end of the fourth semester for valuation. The student will do a dissertation of the research thesis and appear for the viva on the research project.
The Block Field Work after the fourth semester examinations is compulsory for the completion of the MSW course.
The students will organize and participate in a rural camp during the first year and a study tour during the second year.
the oldest living language in this universe, Sanskrit.
integration and creation by enriching the five senses of the
by timeless human values, equipped with the best of knowledge
and skills and committed to serve all types of people and
nature with love, trust, tolerance, humility.
extending it further for the service of humanity.
The social work curriculum has been dynamic and changing with the emerging concerns in the era of Globalization. The curriculum addresses the causes of exclusion, poverty and marginalization and ways of altering structures while responding to the conditions of poverty and deprivation. The M.S.W Programme is designed to equip the students with sound theoretical knowledge about social work, social welfare and development concerns of the poor, and help the students to develop skills and insights into working with people at the individual, group and community levels, and their representatives, and network with other groups and professionals working on similar issues. They have been given exposure to work with all sectors of populations such as children, youth, women, elderly, Dalits, and people with disabilities.
Concurrent Field Work is an integral part of total programme of training in Social Work. Field Work Programme consists of observation visits to the agencies, institutions and community settings, rural camp, study tour and direct practice of social work skills for intervention under the guidance of professional social workers in selected placements. Such placements provide an opportunity to the learner to apply theory to practice and gain first hand experience. Therefore field work in each semester is compulsory in this programme and a student is expected to have 100 percent attendance. Any shortage should be compensated.
In the first semester the field work training would also consist of observational visits, lab sessions, skill based training and placement. In all other semesters, ideally 2 working days per week shall be set aside for concurrent field work of 15 hours per week. Each semester shall have a minimum of 24 days of concurrent field work spread over 12 weeks.
The student is required to submit the report on the field work and the field work diary, before the commencement of classes on the first day of class following the field work days. At the end of the fourth semester examinations the student is required to do a block placement of 30 days.
i. In-Semester Assessment 40 marks:
The following components are considered:
EVALUATION OF FIELD WORK
ii. End-Semester Examination 60 marks :
Viva Voce: 10-15 minutes per student
The following components are considered:-
Supervision is the basis of practice learning. The objective of supervision is to guide a student to acquire social work skills and attitudes required for the profession and to relate field practice to knowledge acquired in the classroom. This objective is achieved by placing the students under the supervision of a teacher in the Department as well as a trained social worker in the agency. The guided supervision through individual and group conferences on specified days and timings helps a student grow as a better professional.
The supervisor’s primary task in the beginning is to make the student feel comfortable and apprise him/her briefly of the social work values and skills. At the onset of the supervisor-supervisee relations. The supervisor must make some assessment of the student’s ability for social work intervention and his/her individual assets, which create suitable learning opportunities and environment.
The Supervisor must strive to:
proposed action in a democratic manner and setting
Agency Supervisor should preferably be trained social worker.
Unit -3ATTRIBUTES OF A PROFESSION
Greenwood (1981) identified three essential attributes of a profession: cognitive, monopolistic and normative. The following characteristics of a profession can be considered as derivatives of these basic attributes:
1. A systematic body of theories and knowledge
2. Formal education in universities
3. Growth in specialization
1. A code of ethical standard with an enforcement mechanism
2. Professional associations
1. Professional authority
2. Sanction from the society
1.The professional relationship is formed for a joint / shared vision / goals (purpose) and not as an end in itself.
2. In professional relationships the social workers devote themselves to the interest of their clients and the needs and aspirations of other people, rather than their own interests.
3. The professional relationship is based on objectivity and self-awareness which allow the social workers to step outside of their own personal troubles and emotional needs and to be sensitive to the needs of others (Pincus and Minahan, 1973)
Social Work Values and Ethics
Meaning of Ethics:
Ethics is a system of moral principles and perceptions about right versus wrong and the resulting philosophy of conduct that is practiced by an individual, group, profession or culture.
This code lists the following broad ethical principles based
on social work’s core values:
1. Value: Service
Ethical Principle: Social workers’ primary goal is
to help people in need and to address social
2. Value: Social Justice
Ethical Principle: Social workers challenge social
3. Value: Dignity and Worth of the Person
Ethical Principle: Social Workers respect the
inherent dignity and worth of the person.
4. Value: Importance of Human Relationships
Ethical Principle: Social workers recognize the
central importance of human relationships
5. Value: Integrity
Ethical Principle: Social workers behave in a trustworthy
6. Value: Competence
Ethical Principle: Social workers practice within their areas of
competence and develop and enhance their professional
Hollis and Taylor (1951) rejected the idea widely held by social workers at that time that casework, group work and community organizations are social work specializations. They observed the need for social work specializations to be characterized by functions and not by agency setting. In specializations by functions they included advance practice, administration, supervision, teaching and research. Such specializations require social workers to explore the whole field of social work from the chosen approach.
Each state in the US has licensing, registration and statutory certification laws developed to regulate the practice of social work profession.
The ethical dilemmas, which social workers face in their work, are summarized by Reamer (2001) into three categories as follows:
1. Services provided to individuals, families and small groups or direct practice face the issues of confidentiality and privacy
2. Social workers in social policy positions may encounter ethical dilemmas concerning the allocation of limited resources
The Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) was set up in 1952, to set standards under which undergraduate and graduate social work educational institutions function and is the accrediting body for these institutions. All states with social work licensing require applicants to be graduates of schools accredited by CSWE. CSWE publishes the Journal of Social Work Education. In 1955, a National Association of Social Workers (NASW) was set up through the merger of seven organizations. The NASW is the cornerstone of social work profession in the USA.
NASW –CORE VALUES
These core values, embraced by social workers throughout the profession's history, are the foundation of social work's unique purpose and perspective:
NASW Code of Ethics
Professional ethics are at the core of social work. The profession has an obligation to articulate its basic values, ethical principles, and ethical standards. The NASW Code of Ethics sets forth these values, principles, and standards to guide social workers' conduct. The Code is relevant to all social workers and social work students, regardless of their professional functions, the settings in which they work, or the populations they serve.
The NASW Code of Ethics serves six purposes:
3.International Association of Schools of Social Work, IASSW
IASSW was founded in 1928 at the First International Conference of Social Work, held in Paris. It was initially comprised of 51 schools, mostly in Europe, and was known as the International Committee. Revitalized after World War II, the organization expanded its membership to include a wider range of countries and was renamed the International Association of Schools of Social Work. The association has member schools in all parts of the world; 5 regional organizations in Africa; Asia and the Pacific; Europe; Latin America; and North America and the Caribbean are affiliated with the IASSW and represented on the Board of Directors.The International Association of Schools of Social Work, IASSW, is the worldwide association of schools of social work, other tertiary level social work educational programmes, and social work educators. The IASSW promotes the development of social work education throughout the world, develops standards to enhance quality of social work education, encourages international exchange, provides forums for sharing social work research and scholarship, and promotes human rights and social development through policy and advocacy activities. IASSW holds consultative status with the United Nations and participates as an NGO in UN activities in Geneva, Vienna and New York. Through its work at the UN and with other international organizations, IASSW represents social work education at the international level.
IASSW carries out its purposes through:
Members benefit from the following
Secretary of IASSWShirley Fisher (Assistant to the President)
Only one national professional organisation in each country may become a member of the Federation. Such an organisation may be a national organisation or a co-ordinating body representing two or more national organisations. Each member association or co-ordinating body must observe the IFSW Constitution. It should especially require from its members regular professional training based upon an organised sequence of social work education incorporating ethical standards of practice and a body of knowledge compatible with the social work principles. Member organisations shall not discriminate against groups of social workers or individual social workers on grounds of race, colour, ethnic origin, gender, language, religion, political opinion, age or sexual preference.Admission is decided by the General Meeting, and is based on information required by the Federation. The IFSW Secretariat can provide documents supporting an application.
The International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW) is a global organisation striving for social justice, human rights and social development through the development of social work, best practices and international cooperation between social workers and their professional organizations.
Mr David N. Jonesc/o British Association of Social Workers,16, Kent Street,Birmingham B5 6RD United KingdomTel: (44) 1604 414 345
HISTORY OF PROJECT
Amount :Rs. 100(Student)225(Annual) 1,025*(Life)
Mode: Cash /Cheque /DD /MO
(Please add Rs.50/- for outstation Cheques
Social case work is a method which helps by counseling the individual client to effect better social relationships & a social adjustment that makes it possible him to lead a satisfying & useful life.
Gordon Hamilton points out that, “The objective of case work is to administer practical services & offer counseling in such a way as to arouse & conserve psychological energies of the client activity to involve him in the use of the service towards the solution of her/his dilemma.”
Social group work is an activity which helps to participate in the activities of a group for their intellectual, emotional & physical growth and for the attainment of desirable goals of the groups.
Group work as such as a method by which the group worker enables various types of groups to function in such a manner that both group interaction & programme activities contribute to the growth of the individual & the programme activities contribute to the growth of the individual & the achievement of desirable social goals.
Mildred Barry says,” Community organization in social work is the process of creating & maintaining a progressively more effective adjustment between community resources & commuity welfare needs.”
The Department maintains 11 Training -cum-
Production Centre and 2 Typewriting Institution.
Various Income Generation Activities are provided to
around 225 unemployed girls.
Widow Pension is also provided by this Dept. to 464
needy widows @ Rs.350/- per beneficiary.
One (1) Working Women Hostel with 32 bedded
capacity is maintained by the Department and
proposed to establish 3 more Working Women
Hostels during 10th Plan. The Department is also
campaigning against dowry, child marriage, prostitution and
To take care of the old and aged person both male and female, Govt. is giving grant-in-aid to Registered NGOS to run the homes.
We are all social beings. We live in society and generally prefer to do so. Like us, all members of society desire to have the facilities of life and peace of mind. The noble people live in society only with the inspiring idea that all people in society should have their due share of happiness and benefits. It is through them that the spirit of community welfare evolves in the society
Welfare of the Handicapped
Social problems in an enterprise arise
whenever an individual employee or a
group and the work situation cannot adapt to each other.’
According to M.M. Desai, the professionally trained
social worker can develop his/her programmes at the following
Curative programmes are aimed at handling problem situations
faced by the individual worker by helping him to make maximum
use of his own potentials and the resources offered by the
industry and the community. Counselling to the individual
employees and their families can be given for problems, such as
alcoholism, indebtedness, and absenteeism, etc.
Preventive and Developmental
1) Informal educational programmes aimed at enlightening the workers on issues pertaining to work life like industrial safety, functional literacy, saving habits, social security, etc.
2) Promoting the use of health and medical programmes for workers and their families (health check-ups, inoculation campaigns, family planning, informative sessions on nutrition, low cost diets, childcare, etc.
3) Personal and environmental hygiene, etc.
4) Developing recreational programmes like library services, prime sports gatherings, various skill competitions, exhibitions, film shows, etc. celebration of cultural
festivals, supplementary income programmes, hobby classes, vocational guidance programmes, etc.
General Areas of Social Work Practice
1) Securing medical help within or outside industry.
2) Planning the family budgets.
3) Helping employee family members in obtaining funds.
4) Seeking employment for worker’s dependents.
5) Referring the worker/his dependents to welfare agencies in the community like child guidance clinic, marriage counselling bureaus, alcoholic anonymous groups and the like, wherever there is a need
Social workers are involved in a variety of settings, and with a variety of people.