Chapter 3 notes
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Chapter 3 Notes. Objectives. SWBAT Compile information about scientists who helped develop the atom throughout history. Complete a scavenger hunt to search for Ch 3 information. 8 Scientists. Democritus John Dalton J.J. Thomson Robert Millikan Ernest Rutherford

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Chapter 3 Notes

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Chapter 3 notes

Chapter 3Notes


Objectives

Objectives

  • SWBAT

  • Compile information about scientists who helped develop the atom throughout history.

  • Complete a scavenger hunt to search for Ch 3 information


8 scientists

8 Scientists

Democritus

John Dalton

J.J. Thomson

Robert Millikan

Ernest Rutherford

Niels Bohr

Werner Heisenberger

Erwin Schrodinger


Democritus

Democritus

460 BC – 370 BC, Greece

Democritus was a Greek philosopher who “…was one of two founders of ancient atomist theory”.

“The atomists held that there are smallest indivisible bodies from which everything else is composed, and that these move about in an infinite void space”.

“The atomists held that there are two fundamentally different kinds of realities composing the natural world, atoms and void. Atoms, from the Greek adjective atomos or atomon, ‘indivisible,’ are infinite in number and various in size and shape, and perfectly solid, with no internal gaps”

Text http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/democritus/

image http://reich-chemistry.wikispaces.com/file/view/demo._atom_model.gif/97847685/demo._atom_model.gif


John dalton s atomic theory of matter

John Dalton’s: Atomic Theory of Matter

1766 – 1844, England

4 Postulates:

  • elements are composed of atoms

  • all atoms of an element are identical, but different from atoms in other elements

  • atoms are neither created nor destroyed

  • a given compound always has the same relative number and kind of atoms.


J j thomson

J.J. Thomson

  • 1856 – 1940, England

  • called the negative particles electrons

  • determined the charge to mass ratio of an electron

  • The Plum Pudding Model is Thomson’s name for his model of the atom


Jj thomson s plum pudding model of the atom

JJ Thomson’s Plum Pudding Model of the Atom

  • www.tamucc.edu


Chapter 3 notes

Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)

  • negative end is the cathode

  • positive end is the anode

    A cathode ray is radiation streaming from a cathode to an anode in a CRT

  • it is a stream of particles

  • a magnet can deflect the ray

  • cathode ray particles have a

    negative charge


Cathode ray tube and magnet demo

Cathode Ray Tube and Magnet Demo

  • http://www.chem.uiuc.edu/clcwebsite/cathode.html


Robert millikan

Robert Millikan

  • 1868 – 1953, US

  • measured the charge of an electron using the Oil Drop Experiment.

  • His experiment measured the force on tiny charged droplets of oil suspended against gravity between two metal electrodes.

  • 1.60x10 -19 coulomb is the charge of an electron

  • using Thomson’s charge to mass ratio, he determined the mass of the electron

    is 9.11x10 -28 g


Robert millikan s oil drop experiment

Robert Millikan’s Oil Drop Experiment

  • Robert Millikan

    received the Nobel

    Prize for his work

  • www.68pair.com


Ernest rutherford

Ernest Rutherford

  • 1871 – 1937, New Zealand

  • Gold Foil Experiment (alpha scattering)

  • he determined that an atom’s positive charge, and most of its mass, was concentrated in the core

    (most of the atom is empty space)

  • In 1920, Ernest Rutherford postulated that there were neutral, massive particles in the nucleus of atoms. 

  • he named the core of the atom

    “the nucleus”


Rutherford s nuclear model

Rutherford’s Nuclear Model

The atom contains a tiny dense center called the nucleus

  • The nucleus is essentially the entire mass of the atom

  • http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e1/Stylised_Lithium_Atom.svg/180px-Stylised_Lithium_Atom.svg.png


Rutherford s model of the atom

Rutherford’s Model of the Atom

The atom contains a tiny dense center called the nucleus

The nucleus is essentially the entire mass of the atom

http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/ast123/lectures/lec04.html


Rutherford s gold foil experiment

Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment

  • Alpha particles were directed at a sheet of gold foil.

  • Over 98% of the particles went straight through

  • Approx. 2% of the particles were deflected

  • Approx. 0.01% of

    the particles bounced

    off the gold foil.

    www.sci.tamucc.edu


Rutherford s experiment

Rutherford’s Experiment

www.sci.tamucc.edu


Neils bohr

Neils Bohr

  • 1885 – 1962, Danish

  • Bohr introduced the theory of electronstraveling in orbits around the atom's nucleus, the chemical properties of each element being largely determined by the number of electrons in the outer orbits of its atoms.

  • Model is called the Planetary Model.

  • Bohr also introduced the idea that an electron could drop from a higher-energy orbit to a lower one, in the process emitting a photon (light quantum) of discrete energy.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6d/Niels_Bohr.jpg


Neils bohr1

Neils Bohr

  • Planetary Model of the Atom

  • http://jila-amo.colorado.edu/research/images/bohr.gif


Erwin schrodinger

Erwin Schrodinger

  • 1887 – 1961, Austria

  • Developed the Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom.

  • This is the current model of the atom.


Quantum mechanical model

Quantum Mechanical Model

This image is a representation of Schrodinger’s Quantum Mechanical Model of the atom.

This model shows the nucleus in the center surrounded by electrons in different energy levels, but there is no distinct energy level shown as in the Bohr Model.

http://www.physicalworld.org/restless_universe/figs/fig_1_30.gif


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