Chapter 2 economic activities producing and trading
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Chapter 2 Economic Activities: Producing and Trading. Costs of Trade. Transaction costs Time and effort needed to search out, negotiate, and consummate a trade May cause trades to not take place Don’t know about the good Shipping costs are too high Don’t like to work with salesperson

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Chapter 2 Economic Activities: Producing and Trading

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Chapter 2 economic activities producing and trading

Chapter 2 Economic Activities: Producing and Trading


Costs of trade

Costs of Trade

  • Transaction costs

    • Time and effort needed to search out, negotiate, and consummate a trade

    • May cause trades to not take place

      • Don’t know about the good

      • Shipping costs are too high

      • Don’t like to work with salesperson

  • Third-party effects

    • Impacts of trade on parties not immediately involved

      • Second hand smoke (negative externality)


Producing and trading

Producing and trading

  • Two people: Elizabeth and Brian

  • Each produce two goods: Bread and Apples

  • Elizabeth  10 loaves of bread and 10 apples

  • Brian  5 loaves of bread and 15 apples


Comparative advantage

Comparative Advantage

  • Should both produce apples and bread or should they specialize?

  • What does specialize mean?

    • Produce the good that you do best

    • Produce at a lower costs than other person(s) can

    • Called comparative advantage

    • Looks at opportunity cost

      • What was that?

      • What you have to give up

      • Give up less?? Have the comparative advantage


What are the opportunity costs

What are the opportunity costs?

  • Elizabeth

    • If give up 10 apples how much more bread can she produce?

      • 10 units

    • If give up 10 loaves of bread how many more apples can she produce?

      • 10 units

  • Opportunity Costs

    • 10 Bread = 10 Apples

    • 1 Bread = 1 Apple


What are the opportunity costs1

What are the opportunity costs?

  • Brian

    • If give up 15 apples how much more bread can he produce?

      • 5 units

    • If give up 5 loaves of bread how many more apples can he produce?

      • 15 units

  • Opportunity Costs

    • 5 Bread = 15 Apples

    • 1 Bread = 3 Apples

    • 1/3 Bread = 1 Apple


Should we specialize

Should we specialize?

  • Elizabeth

    • 1 Bread = 1 Apple

  • Brian

    • 1 Bread = 3 Apples

    • 1/3 Bread = 1 Apple

  • Who produces apples cheaper?

    • What does cheaper mean?

      • Lower opportunity cost (give up less)

    • Brian!!! Give up only 1/3 loaves of bread

  • Who produces bread cheaper?

    • Elizabeth!!! Give up only 1 apple


Here is the deal

Here is the deal

  • Elizabeth produces only bread (20 loaves)

  • Brian produces only apples (30 apples)

  • Trade 8 loaves of bread for 12 apples

  • Breakdown of end result

    • Elizabeth Bread?

      • 12 loaves (20 - 8 traded)

    • Elizabeth Apples?

      • 12 apples (0 + 12 traded)


Chapter 2 economic activities producing and trading

  • Brian Bread

    • 8 loaves (0 + 8 traded)

  • Brian Apples

    • 18 apples (30 -12 traded)

  • Are they better off??


Are they better off

Are they better off??


Are they better off1

Are they better off??


Are they better off2

Are they better off??


Are they better off3

Are they better off??


Both are better off

Both are Better off!!


Can you do it

Can you do it??

1. Draw the production possibility curves for both countries. (Clothing on y-axis)

2. Which country has the comparative advantage in clothing? Food?

3. The United States and United Kingdom are negotiating a trade of food

and clothing between the countries. If the terms of trade is 25 units of

clothing for 15 units of food, should both counties agree?


Economic system

Economic System

  • The way in which a society decides to answer key economic questions

    • What goods will be produced?

    • How will the goods be produced?

    • For whom will the goods be produced?

    • Where on the PPF will the economy operate?

    • What is the nature of trade?

    • What function do prices serve?


Two major economic systems

Two major economic systems

  • Capitalism

    • An economic system based on private ownership of capital

    • Market economy

  • Socialism

    • An economic system based on state ownership of capital

  • Most use pieces of each  mixed capitalism


How do they differ

How do they differ

  • PPF

    • Capitalist: Buying behavior of consumers signal for producers to produce more/less

    • Socialist: Government sets up how much to produce

  • What good to produce?

    • Capitalist: Consumers and producers decide

    • Socialist: Government decides


Chapter 2 economic activities producing and trading

  • How goods will be produced?

    • Capitalist: producers decide

    • Socialist: government decides

  • For whom to produce?

    • Capitalist: Consumers decide if they are able and willing to purchase the good

    • Socialist: Government may redistribute funds to get certain people certain items

  • Trade

    • Capitalist view: Trade benefits both sides

    • Socialist view: Trade benefits one side at the expense of the other


Chapter 2 economic activities producing and trading

  • Prices

    • Capitalism views

      • Rations goods and services

      • Conveys information

      • Serves as an incentive to respond to information

    • Socialism views

      • Price is set by greedy businesses with much economic power

      • Price controls (can’t charge more or less than a certain price)


Now we want to use these questions for the next chapter as we look at

Now we want to use these questions for the next chapter as we look at:

What a market is and how is it established.


Homework 3

Homework #3

Chapter 2

Questions 1, 5, 12, and 17

Working with Graphs and Numbers: 1, 2, and 5


In class exercise 3

In-class exercise 3

Do we understand Chapter 2?


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