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Joanne and Arvin. Plans for Diagnosis and Management. Course in the Ward. 1. Immediate stabilization. Day 1 (01-26-10) Patient was hydrated and placed under diet 1800 kcal/day, 270g CHO, 15g CHON, 25g fats divided into 3 meals and 2 snacks. Plans for Diagnosis and Management.

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Joanne and Arvin

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Joanne and arvin

Joanne and Arvin


Plans for diagnosis and management

Plans for Diagnosis and Management

Course in the Ward

1. Immediate stabilization

  • Day 1 (01-26-10)

  • Patient was hydrated and placed under diet

    • 1800 kcal/day, 270g CHO, 15g CHON, 25g fats divided into 3 meals and 2 snacks.


Plans for diagnosis and management1

Plans for Diagnosis and Management

Course in the Ward

2. Complete History and Physical Exam

3 of the following 5 criteria (Acute Pyelonephritis):

  • clinical symptoms of APN (chilling, nausea, vomiting, flank pain)

  • CVA tenderness

  • leukocytosis (higher than 10,000/µL)

  • fever (higher than 38.5℃)

  • WBC count ≥5 cells/hpf on centrifuged urine sediment

Reference: The Philippine Clinical Practice Guideline on the Diagnosis and Management of Urinary Tract Infections: A Quick Reference Guide for Clinicians* Report of the Task Force on Urinary Tract Infections 1998


Plans for diagnosis and management2

Plans for Diagnosis and Management

Course in the Ward

3. Patients presenting with signs and symptoms of pyelonephritis should have a urine culture and blood culture.

  • The results of the urine culture may not be available for 48 hours therefore a urinalysis and CBC can be used to support presumptive diagnosis of pyelonephritis.

  • CBC with platelet count:

    • WBC of 35.5 predominantly neutrophils.

  • Urinalysis

    • Yellow, slightly turbid, pH 6.5 sp gr 1.005, albumin (-), sugar (-), RBC 0-2/hpf, pus cell 8-12/hpf and bacteria +++.

  • Urine GS/CS and Blood C/S were not done prior to antibiotic therapy.

Reference: The Philippine Clinical Practice Guideline on the Diagnosis and Management of Urinary Tract Infections: A Quick Reference Guide for Clinicians* Report of the Task Force on Urinary Tract Infections 1998


Plans for diagnosis and management3

Plans for Diagnosis and Management

Course in the Ward

4. Broad spectrum IV antibiotics should be started until the results of the urine culture are available and a more selective antibiotic can be identified.

5. Paracetamol 500mg/tab, 1 tab q4h prn for fever

  • Ceftriaxone (2g/IV OD) and Paracetamol (500mg/tab, 1 tab q4h prn) were both started


Empiric therapy

Empiric Therapy

Reference: The Philippine Clinical Practice Guideline on the Diagnosis and Management of Urinary Tract Infections: A Quick Reference Guide for Clinicians* Report of the Task Force on Urinary Tract Infections 1998


Plans for diagnosis and management4

Plans for Diagnosis and Management

  • Empiric Therapy

    • Sepsis secondary to acute pyelonephritis

      • Parenteral regimen: ceftriaxone 1-2 g once a day; ciprofloxacin 200-400 mg every 12 hours; ofloxacin 200-400 mg every 12 hours; gentamicin 3-5 mg/kg once a day or 1 mg/kg every 8 hours.

Reference: The Philippine Clinical Practice Guideline on the Diagnosis and Management of Urinary Tract Infections: A Quick Reference Guide for Clinicians* Report of the Task Force on Urinary Tract Infections 1998


Plans for diagnosis and management5

Plans for Diagnosis and Management

Course in the Ward

6. Request for chest x-ray and sputum examination for acid-fast bacilli.

  • Chest X-Ray was requested

  • Negative AFB smear on day 1, 2 and 3 of hospital stay


Plans for diagnosis and management6

Plans for Diagnosis and Management

  • A. PULMONARY TB DSSM Result:

    • Smear (+)

      • A patient with at least 2 sputum specimens positive for AFB, with or without radiographic abnormalities consistent with active TB.

      • A patient with 1 sputum specimen positive for AFB and with radiographic abnormalities consistent with active pulmonary TB as determined by a physician

      • A patient with 1 sputum specimen positive for AFB and sputum culture positive for M. tuberculosis


Plans for diagnosis and management7

Plans for Diagnosis and Management

  • DSSM Result:

    • Smear (-)

      • A patient with at least 3 sputum specimens negative for AFB with radiographic abnormalities consistent with active TB, and there had been no response to a course of antibiotics and/or TBDC to treat the patient with a full course of anti-TB chemotherapy


Plans for diagnosis and management8

Plans for Diagnosis and Management

  • Types:

    A. New – A patient who has never had treatment for TB or who has taken anti-TB drugs for less than one month.

    B. Relapse – A patient previously treated for TB who has been declared cured or treatment completed, and is diagnosed with bacteriologically positive (smear or culture) TB.

    C. Failure – A patient who, while on treatment, is sputum smear positive at five months or later during the course of treatment.


Plans for diagnosis and management9

Plans for Diagnosis and Management

D. Return after default (RAD) – A patient who returns to treatment with positive bacteriology (smear or culture), following interruption of treatment for 2 months or more.

E. Transfer-in – A patient who has been transferred from another facility with proper referral slip to continue treatment.


Plans for diagnosis and management10

Plans for Diagnosis and Management

F. Others – All cases that do not fit into any of the above definitions. This group includes:

  • a patient who is starting treatment again after interrupting treatment for more than 2 months and has remained or became smear-negative

  • a sputum smear negative patient initially before starting treatment and became sputum smear-positive during the Rx.


Plans for diagnosis and management11

Plans for Diagnosis and Management

  • Category I (2 HRZE/ 4HR)

    • New pulmonary smear (+) cases

    • New seriously ill pulmonary smear (-) cases with extensive lung lesions on CXR as assessed by TB Diagnostic Committee

    • New extra-pulmonary TB

    • Concomitant HIX infxn

    • Intensive phase – HRZE for 2 months

    • Maintenance phase – HR for 4 months

  • Category II (2 HRZES/ 1HRZE/ 5HRE)

    • failure cases

    • relapse cases

    • return after default RAD (smear +)

    • other ( smear+ or -)

    • Intensive phase – HRZES for 2 months then HRZE for 1 month

    • Maintenance phase – HRE for 5 months


Plans for diagnosis and management12

Plans for Diagnosis and Management

  • Category III ( 2 HRZ(E) / 4HR)

    • new smear (-) but with minimal PTB on CXR as assessed by TB diagnostic committee

    • ethambutol may be omitted for non-cavitary, smear (-), fully susceptible cases

  • Category IV

    • chronic ( still smear (+) after supervised re-treatment)

    • refer to specialized facility or DOTS plus/ PMTM Center


Plans for diagnosis and management13

Plans for Diagnosis and Management

  • Treatment regimen for category II:

    • 2HRZES/HRZE/4HRE

    • 30-37kg

      • Intensive phase – first 2 mon.

      • 2 HRZE, 0.75g streptomycin

      • 3rd mon. 2 HRZE.

      • Continuation phase – 2 HR, 1 E 400 mg

    • 38-54 kg

      • Intensive phase – first 2 mon.

      • 3 HRZE, 0.75g streptomycin

      • 3rd mon. 3 HRZE

      • Continuation phase – 3 HR, 2 E 400 mg


Plans for diagnosis and management14

Plans for Diagnosis and Management

  • Treatment regimen for category II:

    • 55-70kg

      • Intensive phase – first 2 mon.

      • 4 HRZE, 0.75g streptomycin

      • 3rd mon. 4 HRZE

      • Continuation phase – 4 HR, 3 E 400 mg

    • >70kg

      • Intensive phase – first 2 mon.

      • 5 HRZE, 0.75g streptomycin

      • 3rd mon. 5 HRZE

      • Continuation phase – 5HR, 3 E 400 mg

  • Follow-up: Category II - end of 3rd month and 5th month, start of 8th month


Insert chest x ray findings and picture

Insert CHEST X-RAY FINDINGS and picture


Insert pneumonia part

INSERT PNEUMONIA part

Plans for Diagnosis and Management

Course in the Ward


Plans for diagnosis and management15

Plans for Diagnosis and Management

Course in the Ward

  • Routine urologic evaluation (ultrasound or CT scan of the kidney) and routine use of imaging procedures are not recommended.

  • Radiologic evaluation should be considered if the patient remains febrile within 72 hours of treatment to rule out the presence of nephrolithiasis, renal or perirenal abscesses, or other complications of pyelonephritis.

Reference: The Philippine Clinical Practice Guideline on the Diagnosis and Management of Urinary Tract Infections: A Quick Reference Guide for Clinicians* Report of the Task Force on Urinary Tract Infections 1998


Plans for diagnosis and management16

Plans for Diagnosis and Management

Course in the Ward

  • Day 2 (01-27-10)

  • Spot sputum AFB stain still showed no acid fast bacilli.

  • Urine and blood specimen were collected for urine GS and CS, and blood culture

  • There were still episodes of fever and cough, with no dysuria

  • Crackles were heard bilaterally on both lung fields

  • Ceftriaxone was continued and Erdosteine (300mg/cap, 1 cap BID) was started.


Day 2 01 27 10

Day 2 (01-27-10)

  • Serum sodium and potassium levels were requested

    • Hyponatremia and hypokalemia

  • Kalium durule, 2 durules TID x 6 doses was given and hydration with PNSS was continued.

  • A repeat CBC showed WBC of 11.80. (35.5 in Day 1)

  • FBS was also requested showing normal value.


Day 3 01 28 10

Day 3 (01-28-10)

  • Spot sputum AFB stain still showed no acid fast bacilli.

  • Patient was referred to DOTS for further evaluation and management.

  • Patient was afebrile, with stable vital signs, no dysuria but still has cough and (+) bilateral crackles

  • Ceftriaxone was shifted to Cefixime 200mg/cap, 1 cap BID for 5 days (until Feb 1, 2010)

  • Patient had stable vital signs. The rest of the hospital stay was unremarkable. Patient was then discharged improved and stable.


Joanne and arvin

  • Discharge Medications:

    • Cefixime 200mg/cap, 1 cap BID for 5 days (until Feb 1, 2010)

  • Special Instructions

    • Refer back to DOTS with X-ray and sputum AFB results as outpatient, increase oral fluid intake

  • Follow-up or Transfer Instruction

    • To come back at Med OPD on Feb 11, 2010 (Thurs, 8am) with DOTS referral.


Laboratory results

LABORATORY RESULTS


Joanne and arvin

CBC


Abnormal findings

Abnormal Findings


Blood chemistry

Blood Chemistry


Urinalysis

Urinalysis


Urine gs cs

Urine GS/CS

  • Urine culture showed no growth after 2 days of incubation

  • Urine gram stain showed no findings on centrifuged and on uncentrifuged urine.


Blood culture

Blood Culture

  • Blood culture showed no growth after 5 days of incubation.


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