Contribution of the finnish meteorological institute
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Contribution of the Finnish Meteorological Institute. Measurements of green house gases (and fluxes) + measurements of particle size distributions. 1. Greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide and methane) measurements. a. Micrometeorological fluxes b. Calibrated atmospheric concentrations.

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Contribution of the Finnish Meteorological Institute

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Contribution of the Finnish Meteorological Institute

Measurements of green house gases (and fluxes) + measurements of particle size distributions

1. Greenhouse gas (carbon dioxide and methane) measurements

a. Micrometeorological fluxes

b. Calibrated atmospheric concentrations

a. Micrometeorological flux measurements provide:

Carbon dioxide and methane emissions and uptake,

sensible and latent heat (evaporation) fluxes within an area of 300-500 radius around the micrometeorological mast, located 50-100 m from the TCAF to the south

  • These data tell us how big sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide and how big source of methane to the atmosphere the study site is

  • Directly measured evaporation is important data for hydrological studies

  • Flux data is valuable for the remote sensing studies

In the top heated sonic anemometer

Micrometeorological setup we use in landfill studies for measurements of CH4, CO2 fluxes and evaporation

4 meter high mast

Sampling tubes from the anemometer to the instruments in the cabin

LiCor CO2/H2O

Inside the cabin


Los Gatos Res. CH4 analyser

On the wall right: optical isolators between the instruments and PC and the data collection board for the meteorological instruments

On the floor pumps for the analysers

b. Accurately calibrated CH4 and CO2 concentrations

Carbon dioxide and methane concentrations will be measured in the TCAF,

sampling from the inlet stack

  • These data will be used in global atmospheric transport models together with global data to reach continental scale source/sink estimates

  • On the regional scale the role of the Laptev sea and surrounding tundra areas as sources and sinks of these gases may be studied

Inside the Global Atmopshere Watch station of Pallas


Working standard gas cylinders

LiCor CO2/H2O,gas valves and flow controllers

Inside the Global Atmosphere Watch station of Pallas

Standard gas cylinders

Gas Chromatograph for CH4, N2O, CO, SF6

At TCAF only CH4 will be measured using Los Gatos Res. CH4 analyser

Scientific objectives

  • Characterization of physical properties of arctic aerosols

    • Annual and long term trends

  • The situation of the Tiksi station fills the gap of measurements needed for global models

    • Estimation of the indirect aerosol effect

      • Formation and properties of clouds

2. Measurements of the particle physical properties

  • Particle size distribution measurements from 6 nm to 10 μm

  • 6 – 750 nm with a DMPS system

  • > 500 nm with a TSI 3321 APS instrument

DMPS (differential mobility particle sizer)

  • Twin system is needed

    • With shorter DMA tube 6 – 30 nm

    • With longer DMA tube 30 – 750 nm

  • Single inlet, both systems sampling continuously

Needed for FMI aerosol measurements

  • FMI will provide and ship most of the instrumentation

  • PM10 inlet

    • Atleast a few meters above the roof

    • Who supplies the inlet tubing?

  • Two racks for DMPS system (0.7h*0.5w*0.5d m)

    • APS on top of the other rack

  • Pumps (2*DMPS sheath flow + 1*CPC and side flow)

    • Generate heat/noise, separate room?

  • Electricity requirements

    • About 1300 W (230V, 50-60 Hz) + PC

    • UPS?

  • CPC’s need butanol for running

For the discussions in the Tiksi meeting:

  • Timetable?

    • When are the facilities expected to be ready?

  • The FMI is also willing to provide training at the FMI to the technical staff of the Tiksi observatory

For the discussions in the Tiksi meeting:

Is it possible to have a cabin for the micrometeorological studies?

If so, is it better to produce it Finland or in Russia (in Finland it costs 3500 euros)?

Transportation to Russia (the company, Rääkkylän muovi, has already produced different size cabins to Siberia)

We will need 4 m high mast, which is a simple structure. Production in Finland or Russia?

For the discussions in the Tiksi meeting:

How high is the sample gas inlet stack in TCAF?

We would like to suggest 20 m high stack because the tundra surface close by acts as a source and sink of CO2 and CH4

How is the availability of synthetic air cylinders to Tiksi from Russian suppliers?

Also butanol (purity >99%) for CPC’s

Customs costs?, in the case instrumentation will be donated to the ROSHYDROMET?

Also the aerosol instruments

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