Pork production in the united states
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Pork Production in the United States. Joel Brendemuhl Tim Marshall University of Florida. U.S. swine industry is changing fast. Who raises hogs? How hogs are raised? Where hogs are raised?. Vertical Integration of the Swine Industry.

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Pork Production in the United States

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Pork Production in the United States

Joel Brendemuhl

Tim Marshall

University of Florida


U.S. swine industry is changing fast

Who raises hogs?

How hogs are raised?

Where hogs are raised?


Vertical Integrationof the Swine Industry

  • One company controls, through ownership or contract relationships, from the farm to the fork


Trends Changing the U.S. Swine Industry

1.Improved herd performance

- Producer efficiency -

2.Fewer & bigger hog farms

3.Specialization

4.Fewer & bigger packing plants

5.Geographic shift in production

6.Integration of production and packing

7.Contracting

8.Globalization


Trends in the Industry

  • Producer Efficiency

    • Pigs/litter

    • Litters per breeding animal

    • Market pigs per breeding animal

    • Pork production per breeding animal

    • Slaughter weights


Estimated Daily Slaughter Capacity, U.S. – June, 2000

PorkFacts, 2000-2001


Fewer & Bigger Hog Farms


Total Hog Farms, 1000 farms United States

USDA/NASS, 2001


Average Inventory Per U.S. Hog Farm

R. Plain - Univ. of Missouri


Percent of Inventory by Size of OperationUnited States

USDA-NASS, 12-28-00


Percent of Operations and Inventory United States

USDA-NASS, 12-28-00


10 Largest U.S. Hog Farms

Smithfield Foods675,000 sows

Conti Group201,000 sows

Seaboard Farms175,000 sows

Prestage Farms122,000 sows

Tyson Foods110,000 sows

Cargill109,000 sows

Iowa Select96,000 sows

Christensen Farms74,000 sows

Purina Mills70,000 sows

Goldsboro Hog Farm70,000 sows

Source: Successful Farming


Specialization

Allowed producers to become more efficient and lower costs of operation.


Early Production1950’s


Today’s Confinement Building


Farrowing Barn


Farrowing Crate


Nursery


Growing - Finish


Most operations are an All-in / All-out type of production


A “Pot”200 Slaughter Pigs


Conventional farrow to finish

Breeding-gestation

Farrowing (3 to 4 wk)

Site 1

Nursery (to 50 #)

Finishing (to 260 #)


Segregated Early Weaning 3 Site

Breeding-gestation

Site 1

Farrowing (2 to 3 wk)

Nursery (to 50 #)

Site 2

Site 3

Finishing (to 260 #)


Modern Swine Production

Intensive management

  • Breeding programs - hybrids

  • Feeding programs

  • Environmentally controlled buildings

  • Disease control/sanitation is critical

    • “all in, all out” production systems

    • “shower in, shower out”

    • Multiple-site systems


Where are pigs produced in the United States?


Corn Production

1

3

2

Primary energy source = CORN


Soybean Production

2

1

Primary protein source = soybean meal


1

Traditional Swine Producing Areas


Geographic Shift


Geographic Shift in Hog Production

Sows are leaving the corn states

Hogs went to N.C. because N.C. developed a better system

Hogs are moving west to get away from rain and people


Percent of U.S. Swine Breeding Herd

State19802000Change

N.C.3.7315.95+12.22

Okla.0.545.42+4.88

Colo.0.443.03+2.59

Utah0.081.27+1.19

Ky2.010.80-1.21

Wis2.951.20-1.75

Ill9.777.18-2.59

Ga3.840.88-2.96

Iowa22.9817.86-5.12


Where are the Pigs?


Contracting

  • Farrowing

  • Nursery

  • Finishing


Swine Breeds & Breeding Mgmt


Categorizing Swine Breeds

  • Colored:

    • Paternal -- muscle, growth traits, leanness

  • White:

    • Maternal -- milk, litter size, mothering ability


Paternal breed

Red

Droopy ears

Duroc


Paternal breed

Black w/ white belt

Erect ears

Hampshire


Maternal breed

White

Erect ears

Yorkshire


Maternal breed

White

Large droopy ears

Landrace


Reproductive Mgmt of Swine


Accessory Sex

Glands

Epididymis

Testes

Scrotum

Vas Deferens

Penis

Boar Reproductive Tract

High semen volume:150-250 ml

Low concentration: 200-300 million/ml

If use AI, may breed 10-20 sows/ejaculate


Sow Reproductive Tract

Rectum

Ovary

Vagina

Oviduct

Uterus

Cervix

Mammary


Sow Reproductive Information


Reproductive Management

  • Estrus Detection - expose the sow/gilt to boar

    • vocalization, “flirt” with the ears

    • respond to pressure on the rump (won’t move)

    • greatly swollen vulva


Reproductive Management

Mating systems

  • Pen mating

    • natural, but controlled matings based on estrus

  • Artificial Insemination (AI)

    •  usage by large integrators (nearly 100%)

    • use “fresh” semen, collected from boars on site

    • frozen semen yields smaller litters than fresh


Farrowing

  • Process of the sow/gilt giving birth.

  • Farrowing stalls (crates)

    • protect baby pigs from being “crushed”

    • provides for “dual heat”

      • drip coolers for the sow

      • heat pads/lamps for baby pigs (85-95o F)


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